Genital tract malformations

Partial Septate Uterus

Numerous malformations of the genital tract have been described, some of little clinical significance and others of considerable importance. Although many attempts have been made to explain malformation in terms of variation of the normal development, it is doubtful if there is any merit in this since malformations are by definition abnormal, and many curious malformations may be seen, for which variations of the normal development do not offer a convincing explanation. Fig. 34.6 A later ovary...

Further investigations of female infertility

Male Groin Hernia Examination

Where the cycle length is either longer or shorter than 28 days a single day-21 progesterone level may be insufficient to pinpoint ovulation and serial progesterone checks may be needed progesterone tracking . For example, in a 28-35 day cycle progesterone tracking could be started Table 45.11 History taking in an infertile couple Nature of infertility primary or secondary Evidence of previous fertility with past partners Previous investigations or treatment for infertility Sexually transmitted...

Advantages of breastfeeding

Enteromammary Pathway

Human milk is not a constant substancebecausecolostrum differs from mature milk and the milk of the early puerperium differs from the milk of late lactation. Indeed, the content of milk varies at differing stages of the same feed. Nevertheless, the approximate concentrations of human milk and cow's milk show substantial differences (Table 10.6) with human milk having less protein but more fat and lactose. A number of specific components also differ between human milk and formulae, such as the...

Health consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome

Obesity and metabolic abnormalities are recognized risk factors for the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population, and these are also recognized features of PCOS. The question is whether women with PCOS are at an increased risk of IHD, and whether this will occur at an earlier age than women with normal ovaries. The basis for the idea that women with PCOS are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease is that these women are more insulin resistant than...

The role of ultrasound

Dermoid Cyst Benign Ultrasound

Ultrasound is an extension of the clinical examination in gynaecology it is unlikely that a woman with a normal pelvic examination and negative ultrasound has a significant gynaecological abnormality. Ultrasound should only be used when there is a clinical question to be answered. Incidental findings such as ovarian cysts are not uncommon in asymptomatic women and if ultrasound findings are taken in isolation they can be misleading. Ultrasound is of paramount importance in evaluating a...