Complete Guide to Growing Tomatoes

How to Grow Juicy Tasty Tomatoes

This easy to read 80 page book was written by two tomato lovers. It is a valuable reference guide which is used around the world by professional horticulturists and novice gardeners alike. Discover the right way to prune, fertilise, water and stake. Diagnose pest and disease problems, and much much more. Learn about a new method for planting tomatoes which is great for root establishment plus the secret root dip which the professionals use to encourage huge roots. The bigger your root system, the healthier your plant. Find out how far apart to plant tomato seedlings. It differs from variety to variety. Find out the results of staking research 12 different methods were tested. See which one was the best! Dont worry if you have limited space, well cover everything you need to know about growing tomatoes in pots and hanging baskets. Find out the professional secrets to fertilizing its all in the mix, the application techniques and the timing at different growth stages. These tips alone will have a huge impact on your plants and give you sweet tomatoes! More here...

How to Grow Juicy Tasty Tomatoes Summary


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Contents: 88 Pages Ebook
Author: Annette Welsford and Lucia Grimmer
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The DNA p Satellites of Begomoviruses

Begomovirus Structure

The first begomovirus satellite discovered, referred to as tomato leaf curl virus-sat (ToLCV-sat), was identified in tomato plants infected with the monopartite begomo-virus tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) originating from Australia. The component is a small (682 nt) circular ssDNA with no extensive open reading frames (ORFs) and sequence similarity to its helper virus limited to sequences within the apex of two stem loop structures. The first contains the ubiquitous geminivirus nonanucleo-tide (TAATATTAC) motif and is thus similar, in both structure and sequence, to the origin of replication of geminiviruses. The second is unique to this satellite and contains a putative ToLCV replication-associated protein (Rep) binding motif. ToLCV-sat is not required for ToLCV infectivity and has no effect on the symptoms induced by the helper virus but is dependent on the helper begomovirus for its replication and encapsidation and hence has the hallmarks of a satellite DNA.

Biological Control Through Augmentation

This control program died out because of grower use of pesticides. Biological control was revived in the 1970s by Dutch greenhouse tomato growers because whiteflies had developed resistance to pesticides. In greenhouses that are closed up against the cold early in the crop cycle, natural enemies may be scarce or absent. Augmentative biological control was seen as a way of correcting this natural enemy absence. Natural enemy rearing for the greenhouse industry started when one grower began producing natural enemies for his own use, but soon he was selling surplus parasitoids or predators to other growers, and the operation became a separate business (an insectary). From 1970 to 2000, the number of commercial insectaries grew from just a few to several dozen firms, which collectively produce about 100 species of natural enemies for sale. A few species (mainly the parasitoid E. formosa and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis), however, make up most of...

Geographical Distribution

The tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was originally reported isolated from Israel and was described in the 1960s, mostly infecting tomatoes and causing very severe symptoms and huge losses. In Spain and Italy, tomato production increased considerably in the 1980s, and closely related viruses were identified in these countries which were first mistakenly identified as new strains of TYLCVs, although the Israeli virus was subsequently identified in these countries. Furthermore, recombinants between local viruses and TYLCV were found and are now prevalent in several regions of both countries. TYLCV was later exported to several countries around the Mediterranean region and worldwide. In 1994, TYLCV was identified in the Caribbean islands and in 1997 was identified for the first time in the USA. Since then, the virus has been exported worldwide (Figure 1) and is present in the following countries USA (California, Georgia, New Mexico, Arizona), Mexico, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic,...

Disease symptoms and yield losses

Symptomatic tomato plants in open field and greenhouses exhibit interveinal yellowing in older leaves, followed by generalized yellowing. Symptoms can be confused with nutritional disorders (i.e., magnesium deficiency), pesticide toxicity, or natural senescence as older leaves may also turn red. Necrosis and occasional upward rolling of the leaves have also been reported. On the whole, infected plants are less vigorous and with fruits that may show delayed ripening. There is no information on the effects of TICV on artichoke and lettuce crops or ornamental species known to be natural hosts. Disease incidence may vary from one or few plants to severe outbreaks, depending on the abundance of whitefly populations. In California and Greece, disease incidence between 80 and 100 was reported.

Symptoms and Yield Losses

The symptoms induced by TYLCV are typically a leaf curling of the leaves with different levels of yellowing (Figure 2). However in a single field of infected tomato plants a variety of symptoms can be observed from green to purple leaf curling, thickening of the veins and the stems, and various levels of stunting. In some instances, the leaf surface is reduced a minimum, with large veins and thick lamina. When plants are infected at an early stage, the plant fail to produce fruits and will stay stunted. Losses are in general very high, and depending on the earliness of the infection and on the level of resistance of the variety can reach 100 . TYLCV is considered a major threat for farmers growing tomatoes, both for commercial or subsistence purposes.

Plant Genetic Engineer

A plant genetic engineer must be familiar with the characteristics that distinguish plants from other types of organisms. Unlike animal cells, plant cells have tough cell walls, which must be penetrated to reach the DNA. Also, some genetic material resides in the organelles called plastids, the largest of which is the chloroplast. The engineer must also be able to regenerate an altered plant cell into a plant, test that plant in a greenhouse, and, finally, see how well it flourishes in a field environment. For example, tomato plants can be given a gene from A. thaliana that enables them to grow in very salty water. Developers of such a crop must analyze how the plant that can now grow in brackish or salty water will affect other types of plants that normally grow in that environment. Thus, in addition to understanding genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry, a plant genetic engineer working on an agricultural variant must also have expertise in plant development and

Gardeners Wisdom

WALLFLOWERS can be companion plants for an apple tree they say it encourages the tree's fruiting (M Baker. 1980). A dead tomato plant hung on the boughs of an apple tree through the winter, will preserve it from blight. Or the plant can be burnt under the tree, so that the smoke can ascend among the branches (Quelch). Sow TURNIP seed thickly in a part of the garden infested by couch, and the latter will disappear (Boland & Boland).

Vegetable Viruses

Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) was originally described in Peru on pepino (Solatium muricatum) and found to infect tomato and related wild species symptomlessly, in experimental trials. Since 1999, PepMV outbreaks have been reported almost simultaneously in many European countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and UK) where it is considered an emerging pathogen of tomato glasshouses. PepMV was also found in Canada, USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Oklahoma, Texas), Ecuador, and Chile. After discovering the PepMV occurrence in tomato grown in Europe and North America, a survey carried out in central and southern Peru and Ecuador demonstrated that the virus was present in Peruvian tomato crops as well as in the following wild Lycopersicon species L. chilense, L. chmilewskii, L. parviflorum, L. peruvianum, and in L. pimpinellifolium in Ecuador. In pepino, the virus causes...

Antisense RNA

This technique was first used commercially in 1988 for the Flavr-Savr tomato. The gene chosen for inactivation was polygalacturonase (PG), whose enzyme unlinks pectins in the plant cell wall, thereby softening it. The intent was to increase the time the fruit could be left to ripen without softening, thus increasing flavor of commercial tomatoes. The Calgene company created a transgenic tomato plant expressing the antisense RNA for PG mRNA, and reduced PG production by up to 90 percent. Although the tomato was not a commercial success, it demonstrated the potential for this strategy.

Satellite RNAs

CMV can also support satellite RNAs varying in size from 333 to 405 nt. These satellite RNAs are dependent upon CMV as the helper virus for both their replication and encapsidation, but have sequence similarity to the CMV RNAs limited to no more than 6-8 contiguous nt. More than 100 satellite variants have been found associated with over 65 isolates of CMV from both of the CMV subgroups. These satellite RNAs usually reduce the accumulation of the helper viruses and on most hosts also reduce the virulence of CMV. However, this attenuation of disease is not due to competition between the helper virus and the satellite RNA for a limited amount of replicase or capsid protein. Some CMV satellite RNAs can also be replicated and packaged by strains of the cucumovirus TAV, although these satellite RNAs do not attenuate the symptoms induced by TAV. Certain satellite RNAs in some selected hosts can enhance the disease induced by CMV. In the case of tomato plants infected by CMV and certain...

How To Can Tangy Tomatoes

How To Can Tangy Tomatoes

Interested In Canning Juicy Tomatoes? Here's How You Can Prepare Canned Tomatoes At Home. A Comprehensive Guide On Tomato Canning. The process of canning tomatoes at home has been a family tradition with many generations. Making home canned or home tinned tomatoes is something that is remembered by families for years! You must have surely seen your granny canning tomatoes at home in order to prepare for the approaching winters. In winters, one is usually unsure of getting fresh tomatoes.

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