The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System developed by Danie Wium is an excellent guide with comprehensive details to assist the enthusiast grape grower in achieving a successful outcome for years. It's designed for the absolute newbie but also contains information even the most experienced grape grower can use to boost their own grape farm. This book is so well written that even a person with no knowledge at all about growing grapes can easily understand and follow the directions given. The drawings and photographs are excellent and make this a very user friendly book indeed. The written work is very easy to understand and is not complicated by a lot of scientific jargon. Danie is a professional grape grower and has put together a course to help people grow grapes at home. His course also includes a video series that shows professional tips all recorded on his own farm. I recommend anyone considering growing their own grapes to buy this e-book. More here...

The Complete Grape Growing System Summary


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Author: Danie Wium
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My The Complete Grape Growing System Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

Overall my first impression of this ebook is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.


Since antiquity grapes have played an important role in the European diet. They were eaten fresh, especially in the grape-growing areas, added to dishes dried or in the form of grape juice, or they were made into wine, the drink of choice for anybody who could afford it. The wild grapevine, a climbing plant like the later cultivars, was indigenous to the area between the Black Sea and Afghanistan. The Phoenicians introduced the vine to Greece sometime after 1000 b.c. from there it spread throughout the Mediterranean. The ancient Egyptians grew grapes, as did the Romans, who were especially fond of various grape syrups in their cuisine. Among them were defrutum, or boiled-down unfermented grape juice, passum, a cooking wine that was even sweeter, and mulsum, a mixture of white wine and honey. As the Roman Empire expanded across Europe, so did the cultivation of grapes, and the art of wine making. In the Middle Ages, great quantities of wine were produced, traded, and consumed in...


Fermentation problems are often vineyard-specific. Nitrogen deficiency in apparently healthy grapes can be severe. Drought, grapevine nutrient deficiencies, high incidences of fungal degradation, and level of fruit maturity all influence must nitrogen and vitamins. Cultivar, rootstock, crop load, and growing season may also influence juice or must nitrogen. Some varieties, such as Chardonnay, have a greater tendency toward deficiency. Higher total nitrogen may also be associated with certain rootstocks. For example, grapes grown on St. George are higher in total nitrogen than those on AXR1. As seen in Fig. 2, the concentration of a-amino nitrogen in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes changes as a function of maturity and crop load. Henick-Kling et al. (2) compared the concentrations of the two important sources of assimilable N (FAN and NH4+ ) among six cultivars at maturity over two seasons (Table 1). This study illustrated large variations from one season to the next in both free ammonia and...

Taxonomy and Classification

Figure 1 Particles of grapevine leafroll associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) observed by electron microscopy. Original magnification approximately X250 000. Figure 1 Particles of grapevine leafroll associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) observed by electron microscopy. Original magnification approximately X250 000.

Genome Organization and Expression Affinities with Other Virus Taxa

To date, complete genomic sequences have been determined for only five viruses in the family BYV, LIYV, LChV and two isolates of CTV (CTV-T36, a decline isolate from Florida, and CTV-VT, a yellows isolate from Israel), while the 3'-terminal sequence is available for beet yellows stunt virus (BYSV), grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2), grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), and tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV). Relevant accession numbers are (X73476 BYV), (RNA1 U15440, RNA2 U15441 LIYV), (Y10237 LChV), (U16304 CTV-T36), (U56902 CTV-VT), (U51931 BYSV), (Y14131 GLRaV-2).

Future Perspectives

And interactions with hosts and vectors is still limited. Stumbling blocks are the large genome size of these viruses and the difficulties encountered with their characterization and purification. As molecular data has accumulated, the taxonomy of this formerly heterogeneous group of viruses, previously based on morphological criteria, has evolved towards more phylogenetically based groupings. In some crops, such as grapevine, new viruses continue to be discovered. At the same time, in the western USA, an explosion of the whitefly populations and establishment of the new species B. argentifolii, has led to the discovery of several new diseases and viruses. Comprising both very old diseases of high incidence and emerging viruses, the field of closterovirology is rapidly becoming a very active and dynamic research area. The recent development of synthetic inocula using cDNA clones from several of these viruses offers new opportunities for the understanding of the relationships with...

Host Range and Virus Propagation

Dianthoviruses have moderately broad natural and experimental host ranges. CRSV was originally isolated from commercial carnations, but has since been found to infect a wide range of orchard trees, including plum, pear, apple and sour cherry, and also grapevines. CRSV has also been identified in several weed species growing within infected fruit orchards. RCNMV has been isolated from naturally infected alfalfa and red, sweet and white clovers. SCNMV has been identified in sweet clover and alfalfa, as well as in various leguminous weeds. The experimental host range of the dianthoviruses is much broader than that found in nature. The dianthoviruses are easily mechanically transmissible to a wide range of herbaceous species. These viruses can systemically infect a number of members of the Solanaceae, Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae and the Compositae. Dianthoviruses infect an even larger number of plants locally (nonsystemically).

Further Advances and Ethical Concerns

Egyptian artwork, dating from between b.c.e. 1550 and 1295, depicts the harvest of the grapes and subsequent counting of the jars of wine. This art suggests that ancient civilizations fermented grape juice to make wine, establishing the basics of a process still used in wineries today.

Origin botanical facts

Grapes are among the oldest cultivated fruits. Fossil evidence indicates that grapes were consumed, and possibly cultivated, as early as 8,000 years ago near what is now northern Iran, between the Black and Caspian seas. In precolonial America, native grapes (Vitisgirdiana) grew wild along the banks of rivers and streams, but these grapes were very sour. Spanish missionaries traveling north from Mexico in the late 18th century are believed to have brought the cultivation of European grapes to California. Today, California produces about 97 percent of all domestic grapes. Grapes can grow in almost any climate, but they thrive in temperate regions with average annual temperatures above 50 Fahrenheit. Although modern farm machinery is used, some aspects of grape growing, or viticulture, are still done by hand. Grapevines generally are propagated from grafts and cuttings rather than from seed. Five years is required for a young grapevine to reach optimal production. The woody vines must...

Incidence Of Abrasion Bruising Compression And Vibration Damage

Bruising can cause the browning of tissues of such fruits as apples, pears, peaches, apricots, cherries, grapes, and bananas, resulting from enzymatic oxidation of cellular contents.24 25 Bruise damage results when the items hit each other or come in contact with hard surfaces of machinery, containers, or handling equipment. Conditions of impact that will promote bruising depend on each fruit's tissue structure.26 Produce with dense tissue and with less air-filled interstitial space are susceptible to deep bruises that may not be detectable on the surface and often develop into cone-shaped and radial fractures as described among peaches27 and potatoes.13 On the other hand, produce with a high volume of air-filled interstitial spaces appear to distort in an elastic manner at the contact surface until cell breakage occurs and is typically found in apples.28 29 Usually the elastic region is continuously re-established further into the fruit until all the impact energy is either...

Pathogenicity Effects on Host Plants

Grapevine fanleaf is the most widespread and economically significant nepovirus worldwide due to the widespread dissemination of infected plants and of its nematode vector in planting stocks. Yield losses can be 50 . Many nepoviruses induce ringspots in certain hosts chlorotic or necrotic rings on inoculated leaves and concentric rings or line patterns on the first leaves to be infected systemically. Leaves that are infected later may show no symptoms although they contain the virus ('recovery' phase). However, in many species, both naturally and experimentally inoculated, infection is symptomless the rarity with which infected wild plants show symptoms indicates a close adaptation to these hosts, and suggests that nepoviruses are primarily pathogens of wild plants. All known nepoviruses infect Chenopodium species and many nepoviruses induce necrotic or chlorotic local lesions, making them useful assay plants.

Microbially Compromised Fruit Native Yeast Bacterial Fermentations and Late Starter Addition

Usually non-Saccharomyces species from the vineyard and winery-associated Saccharomyces sp. dominate the initial and early stages of fermentation of uninoculated musts. Their growth may result in significant depletion of nitrogen and vitamins such as thiamine. Among vineyard-related native species, Kloeckera Hanseniaspora are typically found at highest population densities. Kloeckera sp. are tolerant of both low temperature and the presence of sulfur dioxide. The yeast can produce high levels of ethyl acetate while significantly depleting nutrient levels.

Disease Symptoms and Yield Losses

The increased use of grapevine clonal material is revealing unprecedented and widespread conditions of generalized decline that develop dramatically in certain scion-rootstock combinations. Newly planted vines grow weakly, shoots are short, leaves are small sized, with margins more or less extensively rolled downwards, and the vegetation is stunted. The canopy shows autumn colors off season so that leaves turn reddish in red-berried varieties or yellow in white-berried varieties much earlier than normal. A prominent swelling forms at the scion rooststock junction ('Kober 5BB imcompatibility', 'Young vine decline') sometimes accompanied by necrosis at the graft union ('Necrotic union'), and variously extended necrotic lesions develop on the roostock stem ('Roostock stem lesion', 'Stem necrosis'). Severely affected vines decline and may die within 1 or 2 years. Syrah decline is a severe disease characterized by early reddening of the leaves and swellings with grooves and deep cracks at...

Causal Agents and Classification

An ordinary strain of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) is consistently associated with Kober 5BB incompatibility in Europe, appears to be involved in California's young vine decline, and was detected in diseased Chilean and Argentinian grapes. GLRaV-2, a definitive member of the genus Closterovirus (family Closteroviridae), has flexuous filamentous particles c.1600nm long an RNA genome 15 528nt in size made up of nine ORFs. A virus originally detected in cv. Redglobe in California called grapevine rootstock stem lesion-associated virus (GRSLaV) proved to be a molecular and biological variant of GLRaV-2 (GLRaV-2 RG). Other molecular variants of GLRaV-2 were reported from New Zealand, Chile, and Australia in association with young vine decline conditions. Based on the differential responses of a panel of 18 root-stocks, up to five different graft-transmissible agents inducing incompatibility were detected in California. Of these, only GLRaV-2 RG, the putative agent of...

Fruits and Vegetables Fruits

During the past 30 years there have been many studies on the application of irradiation for improving shelf life of fresh fruits. These include tropical fruits such as bananas, mangos, and papaya subtropical fruits such as citrus and grapes and temperate fruits such as pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries. Immediately after irradiation, pectin in the 10 to 30 yellow papaya showed depo-lymerization and demethoxylation. However, irradiation at doses from 0.5 to 1.0 kGy of fruit at the 25 to 30 yellow ripeness stage had less depolymerization of pectin and a firmer texture when ripe than the controls. Firmness of the irradiated fruit lasted 2 days longer than the controls. Earlier work in the U.S. showed a consumer preference for irradiated papaya.202 The International Atomic Energy Agency has recently published an excellent book on the use of irradiation as a quarantine method for treatment of fruit such as mangos, papaya, and grapefruit in several countries.203 Thomas204 has reviewed...

General Properties of Satellites and their Effects on Helper Virus and Host Plants

Subgroup I Large ss Satellite RNAs with Messenger RNA Properties The most studied of this type of satellite RNAs is that of the nepoviruses (Table 2). These satellite RNAs, ranging in size from approximately 1100 to 1500 nt, resemble the genomic RNA of their helper viruses in that they have a 3'-terminal poly (A) sequence and a 5'-terminal genome-linked protein (VPg). The VPgs of satellite RNAs of tomato black ring virus (TBRV), arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) and grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) are indistinguishable from those attached to the helper virus genome RNA and therefore must be encoded by the helper virus genome. These satellites encode a nonstructural protein with Mr ranging from 36 to 48 kDa, which at least in some cases, such as in TBRV, GFLV and ArMV satellites, has been shown to be essential for satellite RNA replication. Comparison of amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by different satellite RNAs of nepoviruses revealed several domains the terminal regions are...

Ethyl Carbamate Formation

Grapes from high-vigor vines and or heavily fertilized vineyards have high levels of arginine ( 400 mg L). Modifying vineyard fertilization practices, utilizing yeast strains that release less urea, and timing the fortification of dessert wines when urea concentrations are low may reduce ethyl carbamate formation (58). Commercial ureases produced from Lactobacillus fermentatum are available for postfermentation treatment of wines (60).

Virus Host Relations Cytopathic Effects

All trichoviruses can be experimentally transmitted by sap inoculation and by grafting. Mechanical transmission from natural host is easy for ACLSV, PVT, HLV, GBINV and CMLV, whereas sap inoculation is difficult for GVA, GVB, GVC and GVD. It is not surprising that the viruses that are easiest to transmit mechanically are also those that do not appear to be phloem-restricted. GVA, GVB, GVC and GVD are phloem-restricted in their natural host, grapevine, whereas ACLSV, PVT and GBINV seem to multiply primarily in parenchyma cells. However, GVA and GVB can invade the parenchyma of artificially infected herbaceous hosts and become mechanically transmissible under these circumstances. Most trichoviruses are not seed-borne, but PVT has been reported to be transmitted rather efficiently in this manner from a number of hosts and ACLSV may be seed-transmitted at a low frequency in apricot.

Diseases and their Economic Significance

GVA, GVB, GVC and GVD are currently thought to be involved in the etiology of the rugose wood complex of diseases, an economically important problem in grapevine. At least four different disorders participate (corky bark, Rupestris stem pitting, Kober stem grooving and LN33 stem grooving). Individual disorders can be distinguished by indexing on specific Vitis indicators, but not in the field, due to the absence of specific symptoms. Rugose wood-affected vines are less vigorous, show a more or less pronounced swelling at the bud union and a marked difference between the diameter of scion and root-stock. The affected vines may decline and die within a few years. The major characteristic features of the disease are symptoms of pitting and grooving in the woody cylinders of the scion, rootstock, or both. There are cases in which the scion also shows an atypical production of corky tissues, just above the graft union, called 'corky rugose wood'. Unraveling the etiology of rugose wood...

Virus Epidemiology and Control

In most cases, natural transmission by vectors is not the main cause of long-distance dispersion of the viruses, which is mostly due to human distribution of contaminated material. In regions from which a given virus is absent, quarantine measures are the best protective measure. In affected regions, viral infection is usually controlled through the production and use of virus-free propagation material, along with control of insect vector populations and destruction of virus reservoirs. The most frequently used detection techniques for certification of propagation and planting material include bioassays on susceptible hosts and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In addition, detection of dsRNAs associated with viral infection (ACLSV, GVA, GVB, GVD), immunoelec-tron microscopy (IEM), molecular hybridization and PCR detection methods have been reported for several of these viruses. In the case of ACLSV, it has been possible to obtain virus-free plants through the use of...

Geographic Distribution

Viroids such as PSTVd, HSVd, CEVd and ASBVd are widely distributed throughout the world, while others have never been detected outside the areas where they were first reported. Several factors may contribute to this variation in distribution pattern. Among the crops most affected by viroid diseases are a number of valuable woody perennials such as grapes, citrus, various pome and stone fruits, and hops. Propagation and distribution of improved cultivars is becoming increasingly commercialized, with the result that many are now grown worldwide. The international exchange of plant germplasm has also continued to increase at a rapid rate. In both instances, the large number of latent (asymptomatic) hosts facilitates viroid spread. Also, several newly-discovered viroids affect either tropical or subtropical crops. The combination of the generally high temperature optimum for viroid replication and an increased interest in diseases affecting tropical crops is likely to cause a continued...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

The Green School Program of the Center for Environmental Education is a four-part high-school supplementary curricular program that uses existing environmental education materials Peer Partners in Environmental Education (grade 9) School Organic Garden Program (grade 10) Student School Greening Partnership (grade 11) and Student Business Greening Partnership (grade 12). It publishes a newsletter, Grapevine.

Peach latent mosaic viroid

Peach Latent Mosaic

Figure 2 Consensus phylogenetic tree containing 22 viroids, viroid-like satellite RNAs and the viroid-like domain of hepatitis delta virus RNA. ASBVd has been taken as outgroup. ***, Group monophyletlc in all 1000 bootstrap replicates monophyletic in more than 99 in more than 95 +, in more than 90 and - , in more than 80 of all replicates. From ASBVd to the left of the figure groups are considered as being within the viroid family, and from ASBVd to the right (including the viroid-like domain of HDV RNA) as within the satellite family. For example, satellite tobacco ringspot virus (sTRSV) and satellite Arabis mosaic virus (sArMV) (satellite family) or CCCVd, CTiVd and HLVd (viroid family) conformed to two well-defined monophyletic groups in all bootstrap replicates. G1 BVd, grapevine viroid 1B LTSV, Lucerne transient streak virus ScMoV, subterranean clover mottle virus SNMV, Solanum nodiflorum mosaic virus VTMoV, velvet tobacco mottle virus. Other abbreviations as in Table 1. (From...

Major Groups And Host Affiliations

Aphids, as the superfamily Aphidoidea, belong to the Sternorrhyncha within the Hemiptera, a group they share with Aleyrodoidea (whiteflies), Psylloidea (jumping plant lice), and Coccoidea (scale insects and mealybugs). Aphidoidea has three families Adelgidae (adelgids), Phylloxoridae (phyllox-orids), and Aphididae (aphids), although some workers place the Adelgidae and Phylloxoridae in a separate superfamily, Phylloxoroidea. Adelgids and phylloxorids are primitive aphids and older groups, each with about 50 species. They differ from Aphididae by having an ovipositor and by reproducing by means of ovipary. Adelgids are restricted to conifers (Pinaceae), and some form characteristic galls (e.g., Adelges piceae, balsam woolly adelgid). Phylloxorids, which may also form galls, occur on plants of the Salicaceae (willow family), Fagaceae (oak family), Juglandaceae (walnut family), and Rosaceae (rose family). An exceptional species, Daktulosphaira vitifolae, grape phylloxera, feeds on grapes...

TABLE 123 Phenolic Substances

Tannins have evolved to be less desirable foods for herbivores, and they may protect the plant against microbial and fungal attack. There are two subgroups of tannins the condensed and hydrolyzable compounds (Figure 12.7). Hydrolyzable tannins include gallic, digallic, and ellagic acid esters of glucose or quinic acid. Tannic acid is an example of a hydrolyzable tannin. Condensed tannins are fla-vonoids. They tend to polymerize at positions where carbon bonds link the monomers. Tannins such as gallic acid can tie up metals. Tannins are found in tropical fruits such as mangoes, dates, persimmons, and in tea, coffee, grapes, wine, and cocoa. Black tea contains oxidized tannins. Tannins have been reported to cause liver injury (necrosis and fatty liver). Tannins bind proteins or cause precipitation of proteins, inhibiting digestive enzymes. They also reduce the bioavailability of iron. In the Far East, betel nuts are often chewed after dinner, and because they contain 26 tannins, are...

Central Processing Of Chemosensory Input

FIGURE 5 In insects, both olfactory and gustatory cells send axons (afferents) directly to the central nervous system. The first synapse (information relay point) is in a particular part of the central nervous system for each sensory modality. (a) Olfactory afferents go to the antennal lobe, where the input is organized in a manner resembling a bunch of grapes glomerular organization. From Anton, S., and Homberg, U. (1999). In Insect Olfaction (B. S. Hansson, ed.), Fig. 6a, p. 110. Springer-Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin. (b) Gustatory afferents from mouthpart sensilla go to the subesophageal ganglion, where they project into a discrete space that is not organized into glomeruli. For both (a) and (b), subsequent processing is done by first-level and higher interneurons. From Edgecomb, R. S., and Murdock, L. L. (1992). Central projections of axons from the taste hairs on the labellum and tarsi of the blowfly, Phormia regina Melgeri. J. Comp. Neurol. 315, 431-444. Reprinted by permission...

Geographic Distribution and Host Range

Except that C. amaranticolor is not infected by GBINV. PVT shows a similarly rather restricted experimental host range. The experimental host range for HLV contains hosts corresponding to over nine families and includes also one monocotyledonous host, Zea mays. GVA, GVB and GVD and CMLV have a very narrow experimental host range including only Vitis and a few Nicotiana in the case of the grapevine viruses and Prunus and Chenopodium for CMLV.

Economic Impact Of Galls

The only successful treatment has been to graft grapes onto certain resistant root strains. The economic impact of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, results from the loss of nut crop as galls form on the buds and flowers of chestnut trees (Castanea spp.), although the trees remain healthy.

April May June July August Sept

A number of gallmaking insect species exhibit heterogeny, alternating generations that include both sexes with generations including only females. Alternate generations frequently make very different galls on different parts of a plant, as does the homopteran grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, of which one generation induces galls on the leaves and stems while another generation induces galls on the roots of grapes. (Fig. 1). Some alternating generations of gallmaking insects form galls on different host plants, as is found in the cynipid gall wasp, Andricus quercuscalicis, with the unisexual generation forming galls on acorns of Quercus robur (English oak) and the bisexual generation forming galls on staminate flowers of Q cerris (Turkey oak).

Foods for special uses

A recent trend is toward the consumption of 'functional foods,' which are foods or dietary components designed to support health and reduce the risk of chronic, diet-related illnesses and conditions, including cardiac disease, osteoporosis, and cancer (Hasler, 1998). Most examples of functional foods are plant based, such as oats, soy, flaxseed, garlic, tomatoes, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and cranberries. Fatty fish and eggs from chickens fed flaxseed are good sources of omega-3-fatty acids. Fernandez-Gines et al. (2005) reviewed meat products that are formulated with additional plant products and have reduced or modified lipid content as functional foods.

Diet and Patient Education

Patients should be educated to avoid excessive straining at defecation to reduce the risk of pudendal nerve damage. Perianal hygiene must be addressed, including delicate soaps specifically for use in the perianal area, to avoid perianal irritation and pruritus. Only in selected cases should absorbents, diapers, and tampons be recommended. Patients must be educated to reduce or avoid foods that induce loose stools, excessive gastrointestinal transit, or increased intestinal gas production (i.e., milk and derivates, excessive legumes and vegetables, chocolate, tomatoes, caffeine, prunes, grapes, figs).

Cell Signaling Molecules As Targets Of Selected Dietary Chemopreventive Phytochemicals

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the United States has identified about 40 plant-based foods that possess chemopreventive properties. Attention has recently been focused on a vast reservoir of nonnutri-tive phytochemicals present in fruits, vegetables, spices, and beverages as potential chemopreventive agents. It is now estimated that more than 1000 different phytochemicals possess chemopreventive activities 5 . Examples of chemopre-ventive dietary phytochemicals are epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from green tea, curcumin from turmeric, genistein from soybeans, sulforaphane from broccoli, proanthocyanidins from grape seeds, indole-3-carbinol from cabbage, res-veratrol from grapes, lycopene from tomatoes, organosulfur compounds from garlic, gingerol from ginger, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) from honey bee propolis 5 . The following section will focus on an overview of the modulation of cell signaling molecules by selected dietary...

Collaboration with governments

During February, I heard on the grapevine that Soames was hoping to meet Anaphylaxis Campaign representatives so we could share our information with him, and this meeting, set up by my MP, Cranley Onslow, took place on 24 March in his office in Whitehall Place. We had been reliably informed that

Genome Structure

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) 1800-2100 43 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) 1800 24 Grapevine leafroll associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) 2200 39 Grapevine leafroll associated virus 4 (GLRaV-4) 1800 36 Grapevine leafroll associated virus 5 (GLRaV-5) 1400-1700 35 Grapevine leafroll associated virus 6 (GLRaV-6) 1800 36 Grapevine leafroll associated virus 7 (GLRaV-7) 1500-1700 37

Genus Trichovirus

The genus Trichovirus consists of four viral species Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, the type species), Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV), Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV), and Peach mosaic virus (PcMV) (Table 1). ACLSV occurs in woody plants of the family Rosaceae including apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, apricot, and prune. Though ACLSV infection is symptomless in most commercial apple varieties, the virus causes topworking disease of apple grown on Maruba kaido (Malus prunifolia var. ringo) rootstocks in Japan. ACLSV may cause plum bark split, plum pseudopox, pear ring pattern mosaic, and apricot pseudopox disease. CMLV occurs naturally in sweet cherry, peach, and apricot, and causes mottle leaf disease of cherry in some regions of North America. GINV is the causal virus of grapevine berry inner necrosis disease, one of the most important virus diseases of grapevine in Japan. The genomic RNA of CMLV has four putative ORFs encoding216 kDa (ORF1),47 kDa(ORF2), 22...


Also referred to as agrestum or agraz in the medieval cookbooks, verjuice was the tart juice of crab apples, unripe grapes, or other unripe fruit that was frequently added to medieval dishes. Classified as extremely cold and moderately dry by physicians, verjuice was used in much the same way as vinegar, especially in cooling sauces that were designed to counteract the heat of roasted meat. Produced commercially and for individual use when the fruits were in season, verjuice was normally kept for a whole year.

Novel Traits

There are three goals of the creation of more flavorful yeast (1) the use of yeast to enhance the natural grape flavors and aromas, (2) the creation of strains that produce novel flavors not currently found in the grape, and (3) the construction of yeast strains that will carry out some of the important reactions associated with the malolactic fermentation. Many grape aroma compounds are present in the fruit in the form of nonvolatile precursors, or glycosidically bound molecules (reviewed in (79)). The glycoside moiety holds the compound in solution. Only the free compounds (nonglycosidically bound) are aromatic. Unbound or free terpenes impart floral and intense fruity notes to grapes and grape juice. The attachment of a glycoside group prevents volatilization and therefore detection of these compounds. Bound terpenes are hydrolyzed over time thereby maintaining the aroma characteristics of the fruit. The grape glycosidase are inhibited by glucose and are therefore not active in...


Resveratrol (irans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), an extensively investigated dietary chemopreventive phytochemical present in grapes and other plant species, exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive activities by modulating various components of cellular signaling pathways 93 . John M. Pezzuto and colleagues first reported the ability of resveratrol to interfere with initiation, promotion, and progression stages of carcinogenesis 94 . Subsequent studies demonstrated that resveratrol prevented chemically induced tumorigenesis in different animal models 95-97 . Resveratrol exerts chemopreventive effects primarily by enhancing cellular antioxidant detoxifying enzymes 98 . The compound induced NQO1 activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells 98 . Recent studies have demonstrated that the compound can induce HO-1 expression and activity in human aortic smooth muscle 99 and rat pheochoromocytoma (PC12) cells 100 via activation of NF-kB and Nrf2, respectively.


Some species, particularly Woodsia obtusa, are superficially similar in appearance to assorted species of Cystopteris. Both genera are deciduous and noted for breaking dormancy early in the spring. The indusia are different, however, with Cystopteris sori covered with a hooded indusia and Woodsia indusia looking like a napkin drawn up around a bunch of grapes (Mickel 1994). Mature Woodsia spores are brown whereas those of Cystopteris are black. In addition Cystopteris usually creeps whereas many woodsias tend to be clump forming. And finally, in the author's opinion the woodsias are far more ornamental and enhance their garden value by holding their fronds well into autumn without turning ragged.

Assimilable Nitrogen

The nitrogenous components of grapes and juice that are metabolically available to yeasts are present as ammonium salts (NH4+) and primary or free a-amino acids (FAN). Combined, the two groups are referred to as Yeast-Assimilable Nitrogenous Compounds or YANC (13). Thus, a complete evaluation of the nutritional status of juice or must requires measurements of both fractions. In grapes, NH4+ ranges from near 30 to more than 400 mg L (14,15), whereas in wine, levels of less than 50 mg L have been reported (16). Numerous studies have demonstrated the priority of NH4+ uptake by yeasts relative to amino acids. Jiranek et al. (17) and Monk et al. (18) reported that NH4+ was not only incorporated preferentially to a-amino acids but also altered the established pattern of amino acid uptake. All of the 20 commonly occurring amino acids are found in grapes and wine. Their total concentration ranges from 0.4 to 6.5 g L (19). Of these, only the a-amino acid FAN fraction is directly assimilable by...

Viral Transmission

In the case of HLV, aphid-transmission in a semipersistent manner is assisted by a helper closterovirus Heracleum virus 6 (HV6) . Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV) is transmitted by the scale mite Eriophyes inaequalis. Grapevine trichoviruses appear to be transmitted by several species of mealybugs in a nonspecies-specific manner. Both GVA, GVB and GVD are transmitted in nature by several species of the pseudococcid mealybug genera Pseudococcus and Planococcus (Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus longi-spinus, Pseudococcus citri and Pseudococcus affinis). Studies of the acquisition and transmission of GVA by Ps. longispinus, showed that Ps. longispinus can acquire GVA in a short time (15 min) when feeding on N. clevelandii. The virus can be retained for up to 48 h when the insect is fasting. There is no latent period for the inoculation of GVA to N. clevelandii after a 30 min feeding. Such properties are consistent with a semipersistent mode of transmission.

Complete mole

The clinical diagnosis of CM is most often as a result of bleeding, a large for date uterus or an abnormal ultrasound. Macroscopically there is no visible foetal material although microscopically some embryonic cells can be present. The histology shows the characteristic oedema-tous villous stroma however, the textbook 'bunch of grapes' appearance is only seen in the second trimester and as most cases are diagnosed earlier, this is now rarely seen. In Plate 15.1 (facing p. 562) the typical macroscopic appearances of a CM are shown. The obstetric management is by suction evacuation followed by serial hCG measurement and surveillance registration. In contrast to PM, CM more frequently proceeds to invasive disease with 8-20 of patients requiring chemotherapy.

Vegetable Viruses

Figure 1 (a) Strong symptoms of Pep M Von tomato (b) symptom of CYSDVon melon (c) severe vein yellowing on cucumber infected by CVYV (d) swelling at the graft union and death of the scion of a vine grafted on Kober 5BB, infected by Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (e) a citrus grove affected by sudden death disease and (f) a citrus plant killed by sudden death disease, (a) Courtesy of Dr. E. Moriones. (b) Courtesy of Dr. E. Moriones. (c) Courtesy of Dr. I, M. Cuadrado. (e, f) Courtesy of Dr. J.Bove. Figure 1 (a) Strong symptoms of Pep M Von tomato (b) symptom of CYSDVon melon (c) severe vein yellowing on cucumber infected by CVYV (d) swelling at the graft union and death of the scion of a vine grafted on Kober 5BB, infected by Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (e) a citrus grove affected by sudden death disease and (f) a citrus plant killed by sudden death disease, (a) Courtesy of Dr. E. Moriones. (b) Courtesy of Dr. E. Moriones. (c) Courtesy of Dr. I, M. Cuadrado. (e, f)...


Kampa et al. made the interesting observation that protocatechuic acid, which is found in grapes and red wine from Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae), showed a time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth of T47D human breast cancer cells at low concentrations (108). The phenolic compound is a potent inhibitor of topoisomerase I (109). The plant likely contains some germanacrolides because these sesquiterpenes are known

Pancreatic Secretion

The structure of the exocrine pancreas resembles a cluster of grapes and its functional units are similar to the salivons of the salivary glands. Pyramidal acinar cells are oriented with the apices toward a lumen to form an acinus (Fig. 18). Groups of acini form lobules separated from each other by areolar tissue. The lumen of each spherical acinus is drained by a ductule whose epithelium extends into the acinus in the form of centroacinar cells. Within each lobule, ductules join to form intralobular ducts. These in turn drain into extra-lobular ducts, which join to form the major pancreatic collecting duct draining the gland.

Total Nitrogen

Nitrogen compounds in grapes play important roles as nutrients for microorganisms involved in winemaking and wine spoilage and as aroma and aroma precursors (7). Nitrogen is taken up by the vine roots as nitrate and reduced by the nitrate reductases system to ammonia, transported and stored subsequently as amino acids (7). Compared with fermentable carbon generally present in grapes at 20 (w v), total nitrogen levels range from 0.006 to 0.24 , of which only 0.0021-0.08 is biologically available to fermenting yeasts (8). Thus, nitrogen may become an important growth-limiting constraint for microorganisms.


Among plants, Dutch elm disease was dispersed to and through North America with the European elm bark beetle. Beechbark disease spread throughout northeastern North America after the causal fungus was introduced from Europe around 1890 with its vector, the beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga). The wine industry in California is threatened by the recent introduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata) from the southeastern United States. The sharpshooter spreads an incurable bacterial disease of grape vines, a malady long present but rarely a problem until this vector arrived.


Multiple evaginations or alveoli emerge in an arrangement resembling a bunch of grapes. The alveoli consist of a single layer of secretory epithelial cells surrounded by a meshwork of contractile myoepithelial cells (Fig. 11) Many lobuloalveolar ducts converge to form a lactiferous duct, which carries the milk to the nipple. Each mammary gland consists of 10 to 15 lobules, each with its own lactiferous duct opening separately to the outside. In the

Functional Sculpting

The neuromuscular junction is, in fact, far more complex than the simplified diagram of Figure 15.16 suggests. The motor nerve terminal does not make one but a large number of appositions (sometimes likened to a bunch of grapes (en grappe)) on the muscle fibre (Figure 19.36). But the NMJ has one great advantage for the experimentalist it is readily accessible. It has, indeed, proved possible to accomplish the difficult task of finding and following the life of a single junction over a period of up to two months. Consider the difficulty of attempting to locate and relocate a specific synapse (in vivo) in the 1013 synapse mouse brain The NMJ has thus allowed some very revealing studies to be made.

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