Treating Gout

Gout Eraser

The Gout Eraser is a guide written to give the readers tips on how to treat their gout naturally and effectively. The guide was put together to be something that can be done at home without a need to visit an expert as regards its use. This program is a proven home method useful in eliminating gout rapidly and permanently.The book is a quick fix that has been designed to help the user get a cure for their gout in 7 days. The system requires their full attention, persistence, and discipline. The methods employed in this book are natural ones that have been proven by many specialists. The system comes with bonus E-books- 'Sleeping Solace'(The Key To Using Sleep To Cure Gout) and 'Stress Soothers (How To Overcome Stress, which is a top cause of gout), How To Lose 10 Pounds Naturally (The Key To Losing Pounds to Fight Gout).The book is in a digital format (PDF) and has been created at a very affordable price.One big knowledge that would linger on the mind of the users is that fighting gout is hard. However, with Gout Eraser, you will be freed from the pain that comes with gout Continue reading...

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(Aegopodium podagraria) A common white umbellifer, not a true native to Britain, but introduced in the Middle Ages or even earlier, by the Romans, according to some authorities (Huxley, for instance) as a potherb and medicinal plant. By now it is widespread and common, a pernicious weed in the garden (Ground Elder to the exasperated gardener). The young leaves are perfectly edible if boiled like spinach (see Jordan). Primarily, though, and as the common name shows, this is a medicinal herb, and a gout cure in particular, or at least a treatment for gout, over the centuries. It was even cultivated once, specifically for that treatn-ment (Beith). The specific name podagraria means good for gout, from podagra, gout in the feet. Gerard knew the cure, of course, for it was known long before his time Herb Gerard with his roots stamped, and laid upon members that are troubled or vexed with the gout, swageth the paine Nowadays a tea might be prescribed, but Culpeper even believed that the...

Urea and Uric Acid

Plasma creatinine level, which begins to rise only if there is significant ECV depletion and developing prerenal failure. Hyperuricemia is due to a combination of enhanced proximal tubule absorption secondary to ECV contraction and competition between uric acid and diuretic secretion along the proximal tubule. Hyperuricemia is considered by some to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether this is exaggerated by diuretic therapy is open to question. Thiazide and loop diuretics may precipitate gout, but the risk can be reduced by giving allopurinol. Diuretics are also best avoided in polycythemia, both because of the increased risk of gout and of increasing blood viscosity.

Role For Oxidativenitrosative Stress

Second, several extramitochondrial mechanisms have been demonstrated to be of similar, if not greater importance in endothelial cells of vasa nervorum as well as other cells. Those include xanthine oxidase, a multifunctional enzyme of an iron-sulfur molybdenum flavoprotein composition, present in high concentrations in capillary endothelial cells and producing oxygen free radicals, uric acid, and superoxide. Xanthine oxidase is increased in ischemia-reperfusion injuries, anoxia, inflammation, and diabetes mellitus (103). The importance of xanthine oxidase in PDN has been recently demonstrated by Cameron et al. (unpublished) who found a complete correction of diabetes-associated NBF and conduction deficits by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. The same group produced evidence suggesting that two other extramitochondrial mechanisms of ROS generation, i.e., NAD(P)H oxidase and semi-carbazide sensitive amine oxidase are also involved in the pathogenesis of PDN...

Oxidation of Fats and Amino Acids

Proteins are first hydrolyzed into their component amino acids, followed by deamina-tion, removal of the amino group. Finally, each of the 20 amino acids is converted to either pyruvate, acetyl-CoA, or one of the other intermediates in the Krebs cycle, for further oxidation. Free amino acids are not stored in the body. Excess proteins in the diet thus must be eliminated by the mechanism just described. Deamination releases ammonia to the blood, which can be toxic and must be rapidly removed. This can be accomplished by incorporation into new amino acids or by excretion either directly as ammonia (fish), uric acid (birds and reptiles), or urea (mammals).

Anatomical and Physiological Modifications During Pregnancy

During pregnancy, an increase in vascular volume, renal output (+60 ), and glomerular filtration rate (+40 ) is noted. Other than a 1-cm increase in the size of the kidneys, these changes result in an increase in the rate of filtered creatinine, urea, sodium, calcium, and uric acid (Biyani and Joyce 2002a). Hypercal-ciuria is induced by the decrease in the production of parathormone and by an increase in the 1-25 OH-D3 produced by the placenta, which is responsible for an increase in the intestinal absorption of calcium. Despite hypercalciuria and physiological hyperuricu-ria, the incidence of calculi does not rise during pregnancy, since the rate of factors inhibitory crystallization (citrate, magnesium, glycoproteins) is also higher (Biyani and Joyce 2002a Meria et al. 1995). Urine, more alkaline because of respiratory alkalosis, opposes the formation of uric acid stones despite hype-ruricuria.

Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

Purines and pyrimidines are chemicals that form the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). An important purine compound is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used to transfer chemical energy for processes such as biosynthesis and transport. There are several rare defects in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. The most common symptom of purine overproduction is gout, which arises for several reasons, often not associated with an identifiable enzyme defect but rather due to an imbalance between purine synthesis and disposal. Gout manifests when the ultimate product of purine degradation, uric acid, accumulates and crystallizes in the joints. A very dramatic disorder of purine metabolism is Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, which is due to a defect in the enzyme hypoxanthine phosphoribo-syltransferase (HPRT), resulting in defective salvage of purines and, accordingly, in an increase in the excretion of uric acid. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, a severe defect of HPRT also causes...

Innate Regulators of Autoreactive T Cell Priming

During the last few years, so-called danger signals have been characterized molecularly. They, amongst others, include bacterial and viral oligonu-cleotides, bacterial and fungal cell wall components such as lipopolysaccha-rides (LPS), or bacterial proteins derived from flagellae 25, 26 . They all have in common that they are ligands for specific pattern-recognition receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) on innate antigen-presenting cells 25 . The TLR family is built of ten members, each specifically recognizing a different pattern. For example, TLR4 recognizes LPS and TLR9 is engaged by DNA oligonucleotides. Intracellular TLR signaling involves different adaptor molecules such as MyD88 or TRIF and commonly results in the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B 27 . Consequences of toll-like receptor triggering are the release of interferons and other cytokines as well as the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. In an autoimmune myocarditis model, only...

Intraspecific Interactions

The use of light for mate finding has been evolutionarily refined in the Elateroidea, with the Lampyridae using flashing signals produced in abdominal light organs to engage in complex male-female dialogue before mating. These light organs are modified fat body cells with transparent outer surfaces, backed with highly reflective uric acid crystals. The light is highly efficiently produced via the oxidation of luciferin by the enzyme luciferase in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen, producing oxyluciferin, carbon dioxide, and light. Male flashes are composed of species-specific series of flashes of varying duration, composition, and in some instances intensity. Males of different species fly in different patterns and at different heights, while females respond with a simpler flash that encodes species identity by the response delay to the male flashing sequence, by the flash duration, and in several species by a multiple-flash sequence. This sexual communication...

Invertebrate Effects On The Physical And Chemical Environment

As well as the direct effects already noted, invertebrates can alter the physical and chemical characteristics of organic resources (Swift and Boddy, 1984). For example, temperature and water relations can be altered by loss of bark due to subcortical feeding. Aeration of wood can be considerably improved by tunnelling. On the other hand, comminution provides much smaller particles more favourable to microfungi and bacteria than Basidiomycota, a potential example of ecological engineering (Jones et al., 1994). Invertebrate faeces have an entirely different chemical composition to the resources upon which they feed, for example, they are likely often to be rich in uric acid, and hence nitrogen (Krasnoshchekov and Vishnyakova, 2003).

Identifying those at risk investigations

Numerous haematological and biochemical markers have been used to both predict and evaluate pre-eclampsia. The simple measurements of haemoglobin and haematocrit have a weak association with the development of pre-eclampsia as does plasma volume. In women who have chronic hypertension the measure of uric acid and platelets can help in determining those who get superimposed pre-eclampsia again they lack sensitivity and specificity. Second trimester human chorionic gonadotropin and maternal serum alpha feto protein is

Assessment of the mother

Platelets are consumed due to the endothelial activation. A falling count, particularly to less than 100 x 109 l may indicate a need to consider delivery. Counts above 50 are likely to support haemostasis. An increasing haematocrit or haemoglobin indicates hypovolaemia, which is characteristic of severe disease. If labour is anticipated then clotting abnormalities should be checked as pre-eclampsia can cause disseminated intravascular coagulation. This is important if regional anaesthesia is used, which is preferable to general anaesthesia. Renal tubular function can be assessed by measuring uric acid, which is a marker of disease severity, although normal levels can occur in severe disease. Acute fatty liver can result in spuriously high levels of uric acid (along with high white cell count, and low glucose). Urea and creatinine are associated with late renal involvement and generally not useful as indicators of disease severity. Liver transaminases should be measured to indicate...

Lipoprotein Oxidation and Glyco Oxidation

Several studies support the above mechanisms. Brownlee and associates (158) have reported an increase in LDL-collagen crosslinking when the lipoprotein is exposed to modified collagen (containing browning products), compared to control collagen. Some studies have shown that glycated LDL is more susceptible to oxidation than nonglycated LDL and that increased oxidative modification of LDL occurs in presence of high glucose levels (155,157). Tsai and associates (159) showed that in poorly controlled IDDM patients without macrovascular disease, the lag phase of conjugated diene formation after initiation of LDL oxidation by the addition of copper was shorter than in normal control subjects. That increase in susceptibility to oxidation was not associated with an increase of small dense LDL in the diabetic population, but with a decrease in the total peroxyl radical trapping potential of plasma (TRAP) which was significantly decreased in the IDDM patients. The decrease in TRAP was...

Nonthiazide Hypocalciuric Diuretics

Indapamide (Lozol) is the first of a new class of oral antihypertensive diuretics, the indolines. In a randomized, prospective study, 75 patients with calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria were randomly assigned to three different therapies diet and fluid, diet and fluid + indapamide 2.5 mg day, and diet and fluid + indapamide 2.5 mg day + allopurinol 300 mg day 3 , During 3 years of treatment, indapamide caused a 50 drop in urinary Ca excretion. Thus, its hypocalciuric effect was as potent as that of the thiazide diuretics. Relative supersaturations of Ca oxalate and Ca phosphate also decreased by 50 . During the treatment period, the stone rate decreased by 95 in the indapamide group (significantly better than the 64 drop in the diet and fluid group). During indapamide treatment, there were no significant changes in serum glucose, total cholesterol or triglycerides. Serum uric acid increased by 1.0 mg dl and serum K decreased by 0.4 mEq liter after 3 years of treatment with...

Chordates Including the Vertebrates

To suck air in by expanding the rib cage. They excrete nitrogen as insoluble uric acid, further conserving water. The nervous system of reptiles is much more complex than that of amphibians. Crocodilians developed a true cerebral cortex. Placement of the legs below the body instead of at the sides allows better support and motion. Birds (class Aves) have many distinguishing characteristics other than the obvious ones of having feathers and forelimbs developed into wings. Their necks are disproportionately long. Their skeleton contains air cavities, making them strong, yet light. Their beaks lack teeth. They have a four-chambered heart and are warm-blooded. They excrete nitrogenous wastes as uric acid. Fertilization is internal and they produce eggs with a large amount of yolk. Some birds feed on insects other invertebrates, such as worms, mollusks, and crustaceans and vertebrates. About one-fifth feed on nectar. Many eat seeds. The beak is specialized for the type of feeding behavior....

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Renal calculi, or nephrolithiasis, are stones that form in the kidneys from the crystallization of minerals and other substances that normally dissolve in the urine. Renal calculi vary in size, with 90 of them smaller than 5 mm in diameter some, however, grow large enough to prevent the natural passage of urine through the ureter. Calculi may be solitary or multiple. Approximately 80 of these stones are composed of calcium salts. Other types are the struvite stones (which contain magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate), uric acid stones, and cystine stones. If the calculi remain in the renal pelvis or enter the ureter, they can damage renal parenchyma (functional tissue). Larger calculi can cause pressure necrosis. In certain locations, calculi cause obstruction, lead to hydronephrosis, and tend to recur. The precise cause of renal calculi is unknown, although they are associated with dehydration, urinary obstruction, calcium levels, and other factors. Patients who are dehydrated have...

The renal system

Serum uric acid concentration falls by about a quarter in early pregnancy, with an increase in its fractional excretion secondary to a decrease in net tubular reabsorption. The kidney excretes a progressively smaller proportion of the filtered uric acid, so a rise in serum uric acid concentration during the second half of pregnancy is normal. A similar pattern is seen in relation to urea, which is also partly reabsorbed in the nephron.


It is diuretic, a powerful diuretic, Hill (1754) would have it, and it is used in homeopathy for dropsy and rheumatism (Schauenberg & Paris), the latter complaint was also treated with this plant in Ireland, as was gout (Moloney). Indiana folk medicine also advised eating lots of asparagus, which, they claimed, brought relief in just a few days (Tyler). Thomas Hill (1577) listed the ailments to be treated with sperage as the Palsie, King's Evil scrofula , Strangurie, a hard Milt spleen , and stopping of the Liver.

Bird Cherry

Birch tea is used for urinary complaints, especially dropsy. But it is useful also for gout, and has even been recommended as being helpful for the heart (Schaunberg & Paris). It has also been given for rheumatism (Grieve), and another folk remedy for the complaint, from Russia in this case, involved boiling birch leaves in water for half an hour, and putting that water into a hot bath. One bath daily before going to bed, for 30 days at least, is prescribed (Kourennoff). But there were some strange claims made in times gone by, perhaps the most hopeful being from the Physicians of Myddfai - for impotency. Take some birch, digest it in water, and drink. A pure transference charm is recorded in Suffolk, for toothache, by clasping the tree in one's arms, and then cutting a slit in it. Cut a piece of hair with one's left hand from behind the ear. That has to be buried in the slit, and when the hair has disappeared so will the toothache (Burn).


An ointment made from the flowers has been used for gout (C P Johnson), and gypsies use an infusion for kidney troubles (Vesey-Fitzgerald), by boiling a few sprigs in water, and drinking a wineglassful in the morning. It has even enjoyed a reputation of being a stauncher of blood, from the 14th century onwards. Note the Scottish belief that a bunch of broom wrapped round the neck will stem a nosebleed (Beith).


Scurvy is the disease with which Buckbean is most often associated. Other skin diseases were treated with it, boils, for example, in Ireland (O Suilleabhain), while in Orkney, the crushed leaves would be applied for scrofula (Leask). A decoction of the seeds was used to treat rheumatism (V G Hatfield. 1994), or to prevent it (Sargent), it was also used for gout and dropsy - there is a recipe from South Uist, in the Outer Hebrides, that involved cleaning and boiling the whole plant, putting the juice in a bottle, to be drunk daily (Shaw). This may be doctrine of signatures, of course, given the plant's preference for wet, marshy ground. Perhaps the same argument could be used to explain its use for malaria. Hill, in the mid 18th century, mentions this use for the dried leaves, and it also crops up in Russian domestic medicine for the same complaint. Four or five tablespoonfuls of the dried herb in a gallon of vodka, kept for two

The Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen is constantly taken, or fixed, from the atmosphere, oxidised to a form able to be utilised by plants and some bacteria, to be subsumed into metabolic pathways, and through the various routes described above is then excreted into the environment as reduced nitrogen where it may be reoxidised by bacteria or released back into the atmosphere as nitrogen gas. These combined processes are known collectively as the nitrogen cycle. The previous discussions have referred to the release of nitrogen during degradation of proteins and nucleic acid bases, either in the form of ammonia, the ammonium ion, urea or uric acid. The fate of all these nitrogen species is to be oxidised to nitrite ion by Nitrosomas, a family of nitrifying bacteria. The nitrite ion may be reduced and released as atmospheric nitrogen, or further oxidised to nitrate by a different group of nitrifying bacteria, Nitrobacter. The process of conversion from ammonia to nitrate is sometimes found as a tertiary treatment...

Choke Cherry

(Prunus virginiana) An American species that is cultivated in Mexico and central America. The cherry is small, black and bitter (hence Choke Cherry, presumably). Birds often get drunk eating them. However, the cherries are quite useful - country people infuse them in brandy as a flavouring (Lloyd), and native Americans used them as food the Ojibwe used to pound them, stones and all, and dried them to store as food (Densmore). The bark is slightly narcotic, making the user a little drowsy, and its sedative qualities gave it quite a reputation in America, in dyspepsia and tuberculosis (Lloyd). The Indians made a tea from this bark for diarrhoea (HH Smith. 1923), or any stomach ailment. Apparently, the bark was also used in the treatment of syphilis (Lloyd). However the kernels are as poisonous as those of the rest of the genus, and children have been known to die after eating them (Tampion) - it is the cyanide content that causes the damage. The root, too, has been used - Blackfoot...

Cockroach Control

Cockroach control in the future will likely depend on the availability of new insecticides as well as the development of better methods of applying them. Among the approaches that are possible is searching for chemicals that act on sites not previously exploited. For example, a combination of two chemicals is known that prevents cockroaches from producing uric acid. Previous research has shown that storing and recycling the chemical constituents in uric acid is critical to the survival of cockroaches. The functioning of this system is dependent on the fat body endosymbiotic bacteria, mentioned earlier. Other points of metabolic vulnerability will also probably be found in the future.


Dilatation of the urinary track provide problem-free scope advancement without dilating the ureteral mea-tus beforehand (Shokeir and Mutabagani 1998 Ulvik et al. 1995 Watterson et al. 2002), which is further facilitated by continual technical improvements in equipment (such as 7.5-F rigid ureteroscopes and flexible ur-eteroscopes) (Scarpa et al. 1996 Shokeir and Mutabagani 1998). Scope progression can be observed visually, without radiological guidance and with no radiation, provided that a confirmed and experienced endosco-pist does the procedure. Although some experts do not recommend ureteroscopy during the 3rd trimester (Vest and Warden 1990), others consider this procedure possible at any time during the pregnancy (Carringer et al. 1996 Rittenberg and Bagley 1988 Watterson et al. 2002). The calculus is ideally extracted with a Dormia basket (Ulvik et al. 1995). When the calculus must be fragmented, electrohydraulic shock is not advised because it risks inducing labor (Evans and...

Dwarf Elder

Heat a quern stone, to lay on top of it and underneath it dwarf elder, mugwort, and brooklime, and then to apply cold water, having the patient poised so that the steam reeks upon the man, as hot as he can endure it. Gerard repeated the dropsy treatment (the roots boiled in wine and drunken.), and the cure is still recommended by herbalists (Conway), who also prescribe the root tea for kidney ailments. It seems that the Welsh medical text known as the Physicians of Myddfai is referring to dropsy in the prescription For pain in the feet and swelling in the legs. Take the roots of dwarf elder, and remove the bark, boiling it well, then pound them in a mortar with old lard, and apply as a plaster to the diseased part. With Buls tallow, or Goats suet this is a remedie for the gout -Dr Bullen's remedie for the goute, according to Aubrey. In the Balkans, boils used to be treated with a leaf decoction of dwarf elder, used both externally and internally (Kemp).

Dyers Greenweed

A tincture made from it was reckoned a laxative, and the seeds were taken to induce vomiting (Sanford), for they are mildly purgative, and a decoction of the plant has been used for oedema, gout and rheumatism (Grieve. 1931). In Russia, it was even used for rabies (Pratt). The gout remedy goes back a long way, for we find a 15th century leechdom quoting the use Take flowers of broom and flowers and leaves of woadwaxen Dyer's Greenweed , equally much, and stamp them with may-butter, and let it stand so together all night and on the morrow melt it in a pan over the fire, and skim it well. This medicine is good for all cold evils. And for sleeping hand or foot, and for cold gout (Dawson. 1934).

Germander Speedwell

The leaves were at one time recommended for use as a beverage tea (Curtis), hence Poor Man's Tea, from Cumbria (Grigson. 1955), but the common usage was medicinal. It used to be said that Germander Speedwell was especially good for gout the Emperor Charles V is supposed to have got benefit from it (Dyer. 1881). It was so sought after for gout in the 18th century that it was, so they said, made scarce to find through picking for many miles outside London (Jones-Baker. 1974). Gerard was quite enthusiastic about it, but one of his prescriptions was pure doctrine of signatures. That little white patch in the centre of the flower that produced the varied eye names must also be responsible for the leaves stamped with hony and strained, and a drop at sundry times put into the eies, taketh away dimnesse of sight Compare this with a Kentish village remedy for cataract pick the flowers with as little green as possible, boil in rain water that falls in the month of May, pour on to the flowers,...

Clinical Findings

The hallmarks of the disease are hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, and growth retardation. Long-term complications include short stature, osteoporosis, gout, renal disease, pulmonary hypertension, and hepatic adenomas. Virtually all females have ultrasound findings consistent with poly-cystic ovaries. 6 Hepatic adenomas develop in a significant number of patients, and malignant transformation

Herb Robert

In Wales, Herb Robert was used as a remedy for gout, and it is recorded as a diabetes remedy in Ireland (O Suilleabhain) - a handful of the herb to a pint of water, in wineglassful doses, night and morning (Moloney). Culpeper says that it will heal wounds and stay blood. This sounds like doctrine of signatures, for the whole plant has a red look about it, particularly the stems and the fading leaves. In the same way, it was used in Scotland for erysipelas, or rose. Scarlet cloth was also used (Gregor). But the medicinal use went beyond this, and still is used, by herbalists, to treat any skin eruption, herpes, etc., (Schauenberg & Paris), even skin cancer (Beith).

Structural Colors

The helicoids of the exocuticle are so tuned, and because the helicoidal arrangements of their fibrils resemble that of the molecules in one iridescent class of liquid crystals, they are often referred to as liquid crystal analogs. Some insects intensify the effect by doping the cuticle with uric acid, which increases its birefringence.


The procuticle consists mainly of chitin and proteins water is an essential component, and other materials, such as lipids, phenolic compunds, salts, pigments, and uric acid may be present. Chitin (poly 1,4-P-A -acetylglucosamine) is a polysaccharide, present as long and nearly straight microfibrils, usually about 2.8 nm in diameter and of indeterminate length. The filaments tend to run parallel to the cuticular surface, but columns of chitin filaments running perpendicular to the surface have been described for some types of cuticle (lepidopteran larval cuticle). The function of such chitinous columns remains uncertain.

Management Options

Niacin, the oldest of the lipid-lowering agents, is documented to have various effects on lipid metabolism. Mobilization of free fatty acids from peripheral tissues is inhibited by niacin, resulting in decreased synthesis of VLDL and therefore reduction in circulating triglycerides. Niacin also lowers Lp(a) levels, transforms phenotype B LDL to less atherogenic LDL, and increases serum HDL levels. Thus, niacin is the only agent that influences lipid metabolism toward a healthy outcome. However, few subjects tolerate niacin because of the frequent occurrence of side effects, the most frequent being cutaneous flushing. This side effect can be alleviated in some patients with administration of aspirin 1 2 h after each meal followed by a dose of niacin. Liver enzymes rise frequently with niacin administration. However, this does not pose a hazard and does not necessitate withdrawal unless these enzymes continue to rise instead of reaching a plateau. Hepatic dysfunction is more common with...


Medicinally a concoction made with dried leaves and wine was recommended as a cure for gout (which sounds like an oxymoron). Socially, garlands of the trailing stems were popular adornments for festive occasions and were prized not only for being ornamental, but also for purported aphrodisiacal effects.

Fat Body

The insect fat body is a mesodermal tissue composed of a meshwork of loose lobes suspended in the hemocoel and bathed in the insect hemolymph. The tissue is composed primarily of vacuolated rounded or polyhedral cells called adipocytes or trophocytes, which commonly harbor stored inclusions of proteins, lipids, and glycogen. In certain insect species, mycetocytes (cells containing symbiontic microorganisms) and urocytes (cells containing nitrogenous waste product in the form of uric acid) are present. The fat body is also associated with connective tissue and various blood cell types. Being a major biosynthetic and storage organ in insects, the insect fat body is equivalent to the vertebrate liver. It is the prime location of intermediary metabolism and detoxification processes, as well as storage and excretion of glycogen, lipids, and proteins. Storage of reserves is characteristic of the larval fat body cells. Such reserves are subsequently used for metamorphosis in holometabolous...

Fat Body Cells

Urocytes are special cells common in cockroaches, which sequester uric acid (the main end product of nitrogen metabolism in terrestrial insects) for excretion and storage. They are degenerate cells, which unlike adipocytes, lack organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, or the endoplasmic reticulum.

Scarlet Pimpernel

Gerard recommended it for toothache, being snift up into the nosthrils. In Somerset, warts are rubbed with the juice (Tongue. 1965). Gout and dropsy have also been treated with pimpernel in India (Dawson. 1934). There is even a leechdom to know the life of a wounded man, whether he shall live or die. Some pimpernel had to be stamped in a mortar and mixed with water or wine. This was to be given to the wounded man to drink, and if it come out at the wound he shall die if it come not out of the wound he shall live (Dawson. 1934).

Scented Mayweed

(Matricaria recutita) An annual of waste places, with white flowers whose petals hang down soon after opening, a fact that makes sense of the specific name recutita, circumcised. A glance at the profile of the flower will soon tell one why. The main use of the plant is medicinal, though it is harvested in the Debrecsan region of Hungary, where it grows in great quantities, for inclusion in hair rinses (Clair). Mayweed, or Maydweed, is from OE maythe, from the word meaning maiden, for this and other similar plants bearing the name have been used in complaints like painful menstruation (Fluck). But the plant has many other uses, as a tea made from the dried flower heads is used for all stomach upsets (Fluck), as well as for such varied complaints as insomnia, rheumatism, sciatica, gout, and so on. Externally, the infusion is used in compresses applied to slow-healing wounds, and for skin eruptions like shingles and boils (Fluck), or eczema (W A R Thomson. 1978).

Sea Holly

It had a wide variety of medicinal uses in the older herbals, as a diuretic, to treat stone, gout or snakebite, etc. One, from the Physicians of Myddfai, is worth quoting, it is for toothache. Take a candle of mutton-fat, mingled with seed of sea-holly burn this candle as close as possible to the tooth, holding a basin of cold water beneath it. The worms . will fall into the water to escape the heat of the candle. But the only prescription with any claim to more recent folk use comes from Ireland, where it was used for asthma (O Suilleabhain).


Honeydew also contains nitrogenous excretory compounds but generally at very low concentrations. This is because the symbiotic microorganisms in homopterans act as an internal sink for waste nitrogen compounds. For example, uric acid, the principal nitrogen waste compound of the planthopper Niloparvata lugens, is not voided in the honeydew, but retained within the insect body and metabolized by the insect's symbiotic yeasts. Similarly, ammonia, the dominant waste nitrogen compound of aphids, is in low concentration in their honeydew because their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera consume much of the ammonia synthesized by these insects.


The induction of an alkaline urine also has potential beneficial clinical effects. Acetazolamide has been used in the treatment of aspirin toxicity as urinary alkalization increases the urinary excretion of salicylates. Use of this drug for this purpose, however, is not generally recommended because the systemic acidosis that develops tends to enhance the movement of aspirin into cells, potentially increasing toxicity. Although of limited clinical benefit, alkaliniza-tion of the urine with acetazolamide will also increase the solubility of uric acid and cystine. Finally, acetazolamide has potent phosphaturic effects and is a useful agent in increasing phosphate excretion in the setting of normal renal function. On the other hand, urinary alkalinization will decrease the solubility of calcium phosphate, increasing the risk for stone formation. In addition, an alkaline urine will tend to decrease urinary ammonium excretion and in patients with advanced liver disease could contribute to...


(Helianthus annuus) To dream of sunflowers means your pride will be deeply wounded (Mackay), but to have them growing in the garden will bring good luck (H M Hyatt). The American Indians used the plant medicinally to a large extent. It was considered an antidote to rattlesnake-bite, the method being to chew the seeds in order to make a poultice of them (Stevenson). They also boiled the seeds to get oil to dress their hair, and the whole flower heads were boiled by, among others, the Dakota Indians, for lung trouble (Gilmore), which is interesting, for the plant is used in Russian domestic medicine for the same complaint, listed as bronchitis, laryngitis and pulmonary disorders. The same medicine is used there for nervous disorders (Kourennoff). Russian folk medicine also prescribed the stalks and leaves, infused in vodka, and taken three times a day, for gout. To cure a wart, the Navajo Indians burned some powdered sunflower pith on the wart (Wyman & Harris). Herbalists still use...

Urate Oxidase

Not every oxidase requires or contains a coenzyme. Urate oxidase (EC is an exception that can be explained on the basis of the chemistry of the substrate. Urate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid into 5-hydroxyurate according to the equation in fig. 17-10A (Kahn et al., 1997). The hydroxylation of uric acid might appear to be an oxygenation, but the 5-hydroxyl group is derived from water, and O2 is converted into H2O2, so that it is a true oxidase. Uric acid oxidation has diverse metabolic roles in plant and animals.

Water Germander

(Teucrium scordium) A French belief was that if a woman wanted to make a man love her, she had to put a piece of Water Germander (if the identification was correct) in his pocket without his knowing it (Sebillot). There have been medicinal uses involving this plant. It was, for instance, once esteemed as a poison antidote (Grieve. 1931). Gerard was careful to point this out, and he also claimed, among others, that it would mitigate the pain of the gout Later, Hill was recommending it as a remedy against pestilential fevers. But it seems that the only genuine use was for worms, when the dried leaves, powdered, were employed (C P Johnson).

White Bryony

Aubrey. 1686 7 quoted an instance of the use of the leaves for gout, and Lupton also recommended it for dropsy, These usages seem to stem from the doctrine of signatures the root suggested a swollen foot, so it would be used for such complaints as dropsy and gout. Chilblains were treated in Essex by rubbing the crushed berries on them (V G Hatfield. 1994). Of course, there are also examples of what can only be charms, for example, a so-called anodyne necklace used to be made of beads turned out of the root it was hung around the necks of babies to help teething, and to ward off convulsions. Probably the original use was to distract the evil eye (Maddox). There are also records of the roots being put at the head of bedsteads as charms to assist childbirth (Lovett), an obvious relic of the belief in the fertility powers of the root. Like a good many other things, a piece of bryony root carried in the pocket was reckoned to be a rheumatism cure, at least in Norfolk (M R Taylor. 1929)....

White Hellebore

Medicinally speaking, this is an emetic, and drastic purgative, rarely used internally (Fluckiger & Hanbury). Gerard spoke of this strong medicine ought not to be given inwardly into delicate bodies without great correction, but it may be more safely given unto countrey people which feed grossly, and have had tough and strong bodies. Lindley, though, seemed to be recommending it for a variety of ills, melancholia, mania, epilepsy, herpes, gout, chronic affections of the brain It was occasionally used in the form of an ointment to treat scabies (Fluckiger & Hanbury). The itch . mix Powder of white Hellebore with Cream for three days It seldom fails (Wesley). Gerard had already quoted Pliny, that it is a medicine against the Lowsie evill. They were quite right - the powder is highly toxic to fleas and lice (Fl ck). In Russian folk medicine, it is said that the infusion would stop hiccuping immediately (Kourennoff). Of course, the doses would have to be very small.

Wild Cherry

The wild cherry had some magical uses to get rid of a fever all one had to do was to lie naked under the tree on St John's Day, and to shake the dew on one's back (Dyer. 1889). This was from Germany, but there was a very similar usage from the south of France, the tree being the peach this time. There were genuine attempts at medicinal usage, though. The distilled water of Cherries, according to Gerard, is good for those that are troubled with heate and inflammation in their stomackes, and prevaileth against the falling sicknesse given mixed with wine. He also noted that the gum of the Cherry tree taken with wine and water, is reported to helpe the stone , something on which Lupton had already reported. Cherry gum dissolved on wine was a remedy for coughs and colds (Earwood). Wild Cherry seems to maintain normal uric acid levels in people suffering from gout, and was much used for the purpose before synthetic treatment was available (Lewis & Elvin-Lewis).


G., Blaufox, D., Borhani, N. O. et al. (1987). Is thiazide-produced uric acid elevation harmful Arch. Intern. Med. 147, 645-649. 6. Messerli, F. H., Fr hlich, E. D., Dreslinski, G. R., Suarez, D. H., and Aristimuno, G. G. (1980). Serum uric acid in essential hypertension An indicator of renal vascular involvement. Ann. Intern. Med. 93,817-821. 7. Myers, A. R., Epstein, F. H., Dodge, H. J., and Mikkelsen, W. M. (1968). The relationship of serum uric acid to risk factors in coronary heart disease. Am. J. Med. 45, 520-528. 8. Persky, V. W., Dyer, A. R., Idris-Soven, E. et al. (1979). Uric acid A risk factor for coronary heart disease Circulation 59, 970-977.


An old name for cowslip is Palsywort, which shows that it must have been used for that complaint. It must have been the trembling or nodding of the flowers that suggested it. Grigson. 1955 pointed out that the medieval Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum had commended the cowslip as a cure for palsy or paralysis (hence another old name, Herb Paralysy). Gerard repeated the prescription - cowslips are commended against the pain of the joints called the gout, and slacknesse of the sinues, which is the palsie. He goes back to it - a conserve made with the flours of cowslips and sugar prevaileth wonderfully against the palsie, convulsions, cramps, and all diseases of the sinues. Culpeper, too, mentions it - because they strengthen the brain and nerves, the Greeks gave them the name paralysis. It still appears in herbal medicine books as a remedy for giddiness, nervous debility or excitement (Wickham), and herbalists still use cowslip leaves as a sedative and pain-killer (Conway).

Theophylline Table

The first clinical report of theophylline-erythromycin interaction appeared in 1977. In this report, the blood levels of theophylline increased 37 and 46 after the addition of 4.5-5.0 mg kg q6h of erythromycin A in two children. In healthy volunteers, after a 10-day course of erythromycin stearate (250 mg tid orally), the half-life of serum theophylline increased from 4.79 to 7.53 h, whereas drug clearance decreased from 91.6 to 54.8 ml h kg. Theophylline metabolites 3-methylxanthine and 1.3 dimethyl uric acid also decreased (7). Other investigators demonstrated prolongation of theophylline T j2 in asthmatics but not in patients with bronchitis and most investigators failed to demonstrate changes in theophylline clearance.


An old name for COWSLIP, which shows that it must have been used for that complaint. It must have been the trembling or nodding of the flowers that suggested it (Grigson. 1955). The Regimen Sanitatus Salernitanum had commended the cowslip as a cure for palsy or paralysis (hence another old name, Herb Paralysy). Gerard repeated the prescription - cowslips are commended against the pain of the joints called the gout, and slacknesse of the sinues, which is the palsie.

Red Clover

Herbalists claim that the plant relieves gout and rheumatism, and it has even been recorded as giving relief in cases of cancer (V G Hatfield), a use that is known in American domestic medicine from Alabama - for cancer of the breast three or more quarts of red-clover-blossom tea a day (R B Browne).


A recipe for asthma is to mke a conserve of the flowers, and beat it up with three times their weight of honey a tablespoonful dose is to be taken night and morning, to relieve the condition (Hatfield). An ointment is used for the treatment of ulcers (Vesey-Fitzgerald), while the bark, used in some unspecified way, is useful for gout (Barton & Castle). Another use of the bark is for dropsy a heaped tablespoonful of thin flaked bark to a pint of cold water, brought just

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