Dryopteris wallichiana Wallichs wood fern

Epithet is after Danish botanist Nathaniel Wallich (17861854). Evergreen, 21 2 to 5 ft. (75 to 150 cm). Zones 6 to 8. Apoga-mous. description Warm, butter-yellow, arching foliar plumes erupt in mid to late spring from an erect rhizome. The short stipe is liberally coated with reddish-black narrow scales that extend along the rachis. The pinnate-pinnatifid blade tapers gradually at both extremities bearing two to three dozen pairs of sessile, linear pinnae with blunt-edged pinnules. After the...

Deparia japonica Black lady fern

Synonyms Athyrium japonicum, Diplazium japonicum, Lunathyrium japonicum, Athyriopsis japonica Epithet means from Japan. Deciduous, 1 to 2 ft. (30 to 60 cm).Zones 6 to 9. Dimorphic. description The branching rhizome is short-creeping. Stipes are dark and scaly at the base with scales and hairs continuing upwards through the length of the frond. Bipinnatifid sterile blades are oblong and the taller, erect fertile blades are narrower with 12 to 16 pairs of pinnae. Sori with linear-in-rolled...

Dryopteris stenolepis

Synonyms Dryopteris atrata var. stenolepis, D. hirtipes var. stenolepis Epithet means narrow-scaled. Evergreen, 3 to 5 ft. (90 to 150 cm). Zone 8. Apogamous. description The rhizome is erect, supporting stout light brown stipes with abundant scales shading from light brown in the basal portions through brownish-black in the upward expansion of the frond and rachis. The stipes can be up to one-half of the tall frond. The narrowly lanceolate blades are once-pinnate with 30 to 50 pairs of long and...

References

The Fern Herbal. Ithaca, New York Cornell University Press. Ackers, Graham. 2005. Polystichum richardii split at last. Pteridologist 4 (1) 106-108. London The British Pteridological Society. Ackers, Graham, et al. 1997. Fern hardiness symposium. Pteridologist3 (2) 54-78. London The British Pteridological Society. Allen, David E. 1969. The Victorian Fern Craze. London Hutchinson. Archer, Ralph C. 2000. The effect of heat and drought stress on native ferns during the growth...

Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern

Epithet means spreading across the surface, in reference to the sori. Evergreen, 1 to 2 ft. (30 to 60 cm). Zones 3 to 9. description The rhizome is branched and creeps slowly forming multiple crowns. Emerging fronds are wrapped in silky-soft silver scales. They fade to tan as they mature on the A fertile Polystichum frond with its dark spores ripe and ready to disperse from under a lifting peltate indusia. Note too that the rachis bears a significantly thick coating of scales. Ready-to-root...

Dryopteris namegatae

Synonym Dryopteris dickinsii var. namegatae Epithet is after the Namegata region of Japan. Evergreen, 2 to 3 ft. (60 to 90 cm). Zones 6 to 8. Apogamous. description The erect rhizome produces a corpulent crown up to 4 in. (10 cm) in diameter. The green stipes are densely wrapped in glossy, blackish scales with the basal masses 1 2 to 1 in. (13 to 25 mm) long. The stipes are one-quarter to one-third of the narrowly lanceolate, once-pinnate fronds. There are 20 to 25 pairs of pinnae with the...

Arachniodes aristata Prickly shield fern

Epithet means bearded, with a hairlike tip, or bristlelike. Evergreen, 1V2 to 21 2 ft. (45 to 75 cm). Zones 6 to 9. description The rhizome is short- to long-creeping. Hay-colored stipes, heavily tan scaled basally are one-half or often more of the frond length. The rachis is grooved, but significantly, the stipes are not. Ovate to pentagonal blades, Aglaomorpha meyeniana growing in the Fernery at the Morris Arboretum. Note the reduced fertile fronds. contracting abruptly to an upward thrusting...

Cyrtomium hookerianum Hookers holly fern

Hooker (1785-1865) or Sir Joseph D. Hooker (1817-1911), both of whom served as directors of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Evergreen, 2 ft. (60 cm). Zones 6 (with protection) to 10. description The rhizome is erect. Pea-green stipes with a smattering of brownish scales are half the length of the frond. Broadly lanceolate, once-pinnate blades have up to 15 pairs of Broad foliage on Cyrtomium hookerianum. Broad foliage on Cyrtomium hookerianum. pointed oblong...

Asplenium monanthes Single sorus spleenwort

Epithet means one-flowered, referring to the single sorus. Evergreen, 5 to 10 in. (13 to 25 cm). Zones 8 (with protection) and 9. Apogamous. description The rhizome is erect. Dusky, shiny stipes are one-fifth the frond length, naked, and slightly grooved on the upper surface. Blades are linear with 20 or more pairs of irregularly shaped oblong to rectangular, rather than rounded, sea-green pinnae. The species is recognized by the single (rarely more) indusium-covered, linear sorus that runs...

Woodwardia radicans European chain fern

Evergreen, 2 to 6 ft. (60 to 180 cm). Zones 9 and 10. description The stout ascending rhizome supports vigorously tall fronds approximately one-third of which is stipe Woodwardia radicans in the Schmick garden. Rosy new growth on Woodwardia orientalis var. formosana in a container planting with Leucothoe at the Washington Park Arboretum. Woodwardia radicans in the Schmick garden. topped with a thick-textured, ovate-lanceolate, pinnate-pin-natifid blade. The...

Adiantum jordanii California maidenhair

Epithet possibly honors Rudolf Jordan (1818-1910), who reportedly discovered the species. Wintergreen (summer dormant), 1 to 11 2 ft. (30 to 45 cm). Zones 8 and 9. description The rhizome is short-creeping, producing clusters of triangular, bipinnate fronds on chestnut stipes of one-third to one-half of the frond length. The pinnules are short-stalked, broad fans with a sweep of four or more linear, false-indusia-protected sori along the ultimate edges. range and habitat This is a species of...

Zone 7b

Tony Avent, Raleigh, North Carolina Adiantum capillus-veneris Adiantum thalictroides Adiantum venustum Arachniodes standishii Astrolepis integerrima Athyrium filix-femina 'Victoriae' Athyrium 'Ghost' Cheilanthes bonariensis Davallia mariesii 'Korea Rocks' Dryopteris xaustralis Dryopteris crassirhizoma Dryopteris cystolepidota Dryopteris erythrosora Dryopteris ludoviciana Pellaea ovata Polystichum acrostichoides Polystichum polyblepharum Pteris vittata 'Benzilan' Pyrrosia polydactyla Thelypteris...

Asplenium platyneuron Ebony spleenwort

Epithet means broad-nerved, wide-veined. Evergreen, 8 to 18 in. (20 to 45 cm). Zones 4 to 8. Dimorphic. description The rhizome is erect. Short stipes are a polished, dark mahogany-brown and usually about one-fifth or less of the frond length. Lanceolate blades are once-pinnate with up to 40 pairs of auriculate pinnae without stalks. it is of diagnostic significance that the pinnae are alternate and the auricles overlap the rachis. The sterile fronds are lax and short the fertile fronds,...

Hypolepis

Worldwide there are 50 to 60 of these bramble ferns native primarily to Southeast Asia and islands of the South Pacific. They have long-creeping, branching rhizomes that can become aggressive when too happy. The deciduous fronds are much divided and tall. Sori are marginal and under a recurved flap or toothlike indusium. In Southern California, they are popular for use as ground covers or container plantings. Multiply them by division or propagate from spores. The genus name means under scale,...

Polystichum setigerum Alaska sword fern

Evergreen, 2 to 3 ft. (60 to 90 cm). Zones 6 to 8. description The rhizome is erect, producing grooved stipes dressed in light brown scales. They are short and one-eighth to one-fifth of the frond length. Blades are lanceolate and pinnate-pinnatifid to almost bipinnate with 25 to 30 pairs of bright green spiny pinnae. Sori with peltate indusia are medial. It is a presumptive fertile hybrid, exhibiting characteristics of both assumed parents. range and habitat...

Dryopteris sieboldii Siebolds wood fern

Epithet is after Philipp von Siebold (1796-1866), a German botanist specializing in plants of Japan. Evergreen, 11 2 to 2V2 ft. (45 to 75 cm).Zones 6 to 9. description The rhizome is short-creeping. The grooved soft, light green stipes are up to one-half of the frond's mass. The unique open blades are leathery and ovate, looking like a Pteris on steroids, with two to five pairs of broad, linear bluish pinnae and a lengthy 6- to 12-in. (15- to 30-cm) terminal pinna. The sori are distributed...

Polystichum lonchitis Northern holly fern

Evergreen, usually 6 to 18 in. (15 to 45 cm). Zones 3 to 8. description The erect rhizome produces an upright tuft of narrow, brilliant kelly-green foliage. The stipes, at one-eighth or less of the frond, are almost nonexistent and lightly dusted with pale straw-colored scales. The narrow, linear-lanceolate blade is once-pinnate with 25 to 30 or more pairs of Polystichum lonchitis with its upright and jagged edged fronds is readily recognized and admired in woodland...

Dryopteris crassirhizoma

Evergreen, 2 to 3 ft. (60 to 90 cm). Zones 4 to 8. description The rhizome is stout and erect. Massive is the universal buzzword for the crown, which will produce an occasional offshoot. At 4 in. (10 cm), the stipes are short with margins and undersides decorated with 3 4 in. (2-cm) scales of polished tan. The elongate, pinnate-pinnatifid to bipinnate blades are lanceolate with 20 to 30 pairs of pinnae. Pinnules have crenate margins. The entire mass becomes winter...

Polypodium hesperium Western polypody

Polypodium glycyrrhiza x P. amorphum. Epithet means western or evening. Evergreen, 4 to 14 in. (15 to 35 cm).Zones 5 to 8. description Polypodium hesperium is a fertile hybrid intermediate between its two parents. It is taller than P. amorphum and shorter than P. glycyrrhiza. The slender rhizome creeps and branches, and reputedly is acrid to sweet-tasting. Beige stipes, occasionally bearing pale brown scales, are one-third of the frond length. Pinnatifid blades that are generally barely wider...

Polystichum makinoi Makinos holly fern

Epithet is after Japanese botanist Tomitaro Makino (1861 1957). Evergreen, IV2 to 2V2 ft. (45 to 75 cm).Zones 5 to 9. description The rhizome is erect with brown-scaled, grooved stipes that are straw-brown at the base transitioning to green approaching the foliage. The total stipe proportion is one-third of the frond. Forest-green, bipinnate, luminescent blades are lanceolate with 15 to 20 pairs of pinnae. The basal pair flares downwards. Sori are medial with peltate indusia. range and habitat...

Dryopteris cristata Crested wood fern

Epithet means crested, a totally incorrect description. Deciduous to evergreen, 2 ft. (60 cm). Zones 3 to 8. description Contrary to the name bestowed by Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), this is not a crested fern. The erect fronds, which emerge from a short-creeping rhizome, are about one-third lightly scaly stipe and two-thirds pinnate-pinnatifid, bluish green, narrowly lanceolate blades. The slightly triangular pinnae, which are held parallel to the ground in an open Venetian blind fashion, give...

Ceterach officinarum

Evergreen, 3 to 8 in. (7.5 to 20 cm).Zones 5 to 8. description The rhizome is erect. Succulent tan-green stipes with a sparse smattering of brown scales are one-fourth the length of the frond or less. The rich green blades with zigzag lobes of pinnae are reminiscent in outline of the rick-rack that adorned the dresses of little girls in my childhood. Young fronds emerge with a shimmering undercoat of translucent and protective silvery scales. In time these mature to the...

Asplenium montanum Mountain spleenwort

Evergreen, 3 to 6 in. (7.5 to 15 cm).Zones 4 to 8. description The rhizome is erect. Stipes are one-half of the frond length, briefly dark at the base, and grade into green. Warm green, narrowly triangular blades are bipinnate in the lower pair or two of pinnae, and once-pinnate as the pairs of pinnae approach the frond's apex. Sori are linear with linear indusia. range and habitat The mountain spleenwort grows on sandstone and acidic rocks down the backbone of...

Polypodium interjectum Intermediate polypody

Epithet means intermediate, referring to the plant's form. Evergreen, 12 to 18 in. (30 to 45 cm).Zones 5 to 8. description Intermediate between its two parents, this Polypodium is more robust than either parent. The rhizome is Polypodium hesperium among rocks in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State. The very attractive, nonreverting, fringed fronds of Polypodium glycyrrhiza 'Malahatense' emerge in late summer and remain cheerfully green throughout the winter. Polypodium interjectum...

Dicksonia fibrosa Woolly tree fern

Evergreen, 18 ft. (5.4 m). Zones 9 and 10. description The fibrous, rusty colored trunk grows to 18 ft. (5.4 m). Erect fountains of tripinnate to quadripinnate narrow fronds with short stipes are mass produced and reach a length of 8 or 9 ft. (2.4 to 2.7 m). The species is readily recognized in the wild by the skirts of old fronds that droop and drape the trunk with blankets of cold-protective, dead fronds that even in their final stages still serve a...

Dryopteris hondoensis

Epithet means from Hondo, a city in Japan. Evergreen, 2 ft. (60 cm).Zones 4 to 8. Apogamous. description The rhizome is ascending to short-creeping. The crown bears fronds that are one-third sparingly scaly stipes supporting ovate, bipinnate to bipinnate-pinnatifid lustrous blades with up to 15 pairs of pinnae. The sori are medial and covered with a kidney-shaped indusium. range and habitat This is native to moist forested areas in Japan, China, and Korea. culture and comments Dryopteris...

Shorter Notes

Pyrrosia piloselloides is a miniature polypod fern with the outsize charm found in most small things that give us no harm or fright. Native to India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, and New Guinea, it inhabits mossy tree bark in old-growth forests, spreading closely upon the moss, standing no taller The miniature Pyrrosia piloselloides growing on a tree fern shingle hung on a door where it receives nearly day-long shade. Mounted four years previously, the fern colony now fairly covers the...

Asplenium bulbiferum Mother fern

Epithet means with bulbils Evergreen, 2 to 4 ft. (60 to 120 cm). Zones 9 and 10. description The rhizome is erect. Stipes of two-toned green and brown are one-third the length of the frond. Ovate blades are variable bipinnate to tripinnate with families of ready-to-root babies on the upper frond surface. Sori with matching indusia are singular on the segments. range and habitat Mother fern grows in most of Asia as well as Australia and New Zealand. it prefers deeply shaded damp to evenly moist...

Pellaea glabella Smooth cliff brake

Evergreen, 4 to 14 in. (10 to 35 cm). Zones 3 to 8.Apogamous. description The rhizome is short-creeping. Plum-brown stipes are one-half of the frond length and smooth with an insignificant and fleeting dusting of hairs. Blades are lanceolate with stalked bipinnate lower pinnae and sessile, once-pinnate upper pinnae on four to nine pairs of pinnae. Sori are enclosed in the inrolled false marginal indusia. Botanists have divided this species into four subspecies. See Flora of North America (1993)...

Dryopteris neorosthornii

Epithet is after A. von Rosthorn, who collected in china in the late 1890s, and neo, new. Evergreen (as found in the trade), 2 to 3 ft. (60 to 90 cm). Zones (6) 7 and 8. Apogamous. description The rhizome is erect. The stipes with prominent, luminous blackish-tan V4-in. (6-mm) scales are one-fourth of the shower of golden fronds. The radiant, bipinnate blades are lanceolate with 20 to 24 pairs of pinnae. The sori are medial and protected by a kidney-shaped indusium. range and habitat This fern...

Cliff brakes

Pellaeas, the cliff brakes, are those dusky blue charmers that enchant and taunt from cliff sides, mortared crevices, and other stressful and fern-forbidding sunny habitats with dry and lean, gritty soil. As such, those that are natives of the U.S. Southwest flourish in the challenging sites that delight passing tourists with periodic spring bursts of desert wildflowers but are not traditionally associated with our friends, the ferns. Their exquisitely adapted blue-toned fronds offer beauty to...

Osmunda regalis Royal fern flowering fern Epithet means royal

Deciduous, 2 to 6 ft. (60 to 180 cm) or more. Zones 2 to 10. description Here is the royal fern and regal it is with broadly ovate fronds occasionally up to 9 ft. (2.7 m) on trunklike rhizomes. One third is stipe and the remainder is made up of a bipinnate blade, with opposite pinnae suggestive of Osmunda regalis 'Gracilis' in the Schmick garden. Osmunda regalis 'Gracilis' in the Schmick garden. locust tree foliage. The fertile portion replaces the leafy tissue at the tips of the spore-bearing...

Helmuth Schmick

Jam indebted to many talented and special friends and family members who have contributed advice and observations from their considerable knowledge, who have patiently offered welcome encouragement, and, for some, devoted many hours of time to the making of this book. Thank you does not begin to express my gratitude but I am indeed grateful to you all. Very special thanks go to long-time friend George Schenk, who has kindly offered invaluable support, encouragement, and welcome advice...

Cheilanthes covillei Covilles lip fern

Epithet is after Frederick Coville (1867-1937), chief botanist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Evergreen, 6 to 12 in. (15 to 30 cm).Zones 7 to 9. description The rhizome is short-creeping. Coffee-brown, rounded stipes are up to one-half of the length of the frond. The lanceolate tripinnate blades have 10 to 12 pairs of pinnae with beady segments. The upper surface is glabrous, but the rachis and midveins of the pinnae undersides have small, overlapping, ovate scales with a heart-shaped...

Argyrochosma

Synonyms Cheilanthes, Notholaena, Pellaea Argyrochosma gathers together some 20 intriguing xeric species that until 1987 (Windham) were classified under one or another of the above synonyms. The appropriately descriptive genus name Argyrochosma, from the Greek argyros, silver, and chosma, powder, references the waxy, white protective foliar undercoat that decorates many of the species. Others are included by virtue of the stalks and cordate bases on the minute ultimate segments. These are...

Polypodium glycyrrhiza

Wintergreen (summer dormant), 1 to 2 ft. (30 to 60 cm). Zones 5 to 8. description The rhizome is long-creeping with a pseudo-licorice flavor. Stipes are tan, often maturing to a greenish brown, and one-third of the frond length. Blades are lanceolate and pinnatifid with 10 to 20 or more pairs of pointed linear, dull green, smooth-margined pinnae. The rachis is unusual in having a smattering of hairs on the upper surface matching a mild distribution of hairs on the...

Cheilanthes feei slender lip fern

Epithet is after French botanist Antoine F e (1789-1874). Evergreen, 6 to 10 in. (15 to 25 cm).Zones 5 to 8. Apogamous. Upright fronds of Cheilanthes eatonii among rocks in the Horder garden. The underside of a fertile frond on Cheilanthes farinosa showing the namesake white farina. Cheilanthes fendleri silhouetted against a stump in the Carstensen garden. Cheilanthes fendleri silhouetted against a stump in the Carstensen garden. A colony of Cheilanthes feei on the east side of the Ladronas...

Maidenhair ferns

The maidenhairs are popular and beautifully irresistible, delicate-appearing plants that evoke the traditional image of fern in the mind's eye of the gardening public. The maidenhair fern . . . is one of the few species with which those who make no pretense to botanical knowledge are usually acquainted (Clute 1901). There are some 150 to 200 species scattered over the world's various fern habitats with a rich assortment of natives populating favored sites in the American tropics. Given their...

Dryopteris filixmas Male fern

Epithet means male fern, a name applied by the Greeks because of the fern's robust masculine character. (We ladies get the supposedly delicate Athyrium filix-femina.) Deciduous, 2 to 4 ft. (60 to 120 cm).Zones 4 to 8. description Stout erect rhizomes support bouquets of fronds with dull green pinnate-pinnatifid blades and tan grooved stipes that are one-quarter to occasionally one-third of the frond length. They are sparsely trimmed with a unique mixture of light to reddish brown scales and...

The British Pteridological Society

The British Pteridological Society, the world's oldest fern society, offers members a balance between horticultural interests and the purely botanical. The Society publishes three annual journals The Fern Gazette, which presents scholarly articles The Bulletin, which reports on the annual activities, field excursions, and society business and The Pteridologist, which includes a broad range of articles of general fern interest. In addition special publications are released periodically with the...

Water clover ferns

The water clover ferns are most unfernlike in their four-leaf clover configuration as well as in their preference for floating atop still waters. Most of the world's 50 to 60 species are from tropical wetlands, but a few grace ponds and gather at water's edge in temperate zones. The rhizomes spread about in the muck of bottomlands sending up fronds with signature clover-shaped pinnae that decorate surface waters in light shade or preferably sun. Their complex reproductive cycle, arising from...

Polystichum proliferum Mother shield fern

Epithet means bearing offspring, referring to the production of one or more buds at the frond's apex. Evergreen, 2 to 4 ft. (60 to 120 cm). Zones (6) 7 to 9. description The rhizome is erect, sometimes forming a small trunk and bearing remnants of old stipe bases. Short stipes of one-fifth to one-fourth of the frond length are grooved and decorated with a wrap of shiny dark-centered brown scales. Juvenile blades are bright, light, almost lime-green, maturing to rich, deep green coniferous hues....

Selaginella uncinata Peacock fern

Selaginella Erythropus Soil

Subevergreen to evergreen, prostrate. Zones 6 to 10. description Creeping and branching stems create extended mats of stubby overlapping segments of iridescent electric-blue to blue-green foliage. The plant roots easily as it travels about. range and habitat Although native to China, this species has escaped in the southeastern tier of the united states. it needs moist shade. culture and comments While it is generally recommended for Zone 6 and up, peacock fern can...

Woodsia manchuriensis

Deciduous, 4 to 15 in. (10 to 38 cm). Zones 4 to 8. description The rhizome is erect. Russet stipes are not jointed and are very short, usually under 2 in. (5 cm). They are scaly at their base with few to no hairs or scales elsewhere. Lanceolate, pinnate-pinnatifid (and seriously close to bipin-nate) blades are a pale chalky green on their undersides and bear 15 to 25 pairs of pinnae with the lowermost reduced to widely spaced stubs. sori are close to the margins...

Dryopteris polylepis

Evergreen, 2 ft. (60 cm). Zones 6 to 8. description The rhizome is erect with fronds radiating in arching horizontal sprays from short stipes that are one-fifth of the total foliage. As the common name implies, these are massively and handsomely dressed in blackish-brown scales that extend well onto the rachis. The narrow oblanceolate blades are pinnate-pinnatifid and a warm kelly-green. The 20 to 28 pairs of pinnae taper gradually toward the frond's base with the...

Dryopteris aemula

Hay-scented wood fern, hay-scented buckler fern Epithet means imitating or rivaling other ferns. Semievergreen, 2 ft. (60 cm). Zones 6 to 8. description The rhizome is erect. The frond is half purple-brown stipe, with scattered brown scales, and half medium green, triangular-ovate blades bearing minute glands. The 10 to 20 pairs of tripinnate pinnae curve gracefully towards the drooping frond apex. The sori are medial (between the midrib and margin), and the indusium is kidney-shaped. range and...

Tuberous sword fern

Epithet means with heart-shaped leaves. Evergreen, 18 to 30 in. (45 to 75 cm).Zones 9 to 11. description The rhizome is wide creeping and forms unusual tuberous buds. Stipes are small and insignificant. Narrow upright blades taper at both base and apex and are crowded with 40 to 50 pairs of pinnae. Sori with kidney-shaped indusia are submarginal. range and habitat This species is native in a wide expanse of the tropics including the West Indies, Mexico, South America, the South pacific, and...

Pyrrosia

Pyrrosias, with their unfernlike appearances, come to our temperate gardens, our contrasting subtropical comforts, and the luxury of greenhouses as felt ferns. The common name describes the coating of hairy silver stars that decorate the unfurling fronds. These will mature to a soft, felt-like, rusty blanket that persists on the fronds' undersides and protects the indusia-free developing spores. Pyrrosia is a genus with short- to long-creeping rhizomes, with those of many species slender and...

Asplenium csikii

Synonym Asplenium trichomanes subsp. pachyrachis Epithet is after Erno Csiki, a late nineteenth-century Hungarian beetle specialist. Evergreen, 4 to 6 in. (10 to 15 cm).Zones 5 to 8. description The rhizome is erect. Dark chocolate-black stipes are short to almost nonexistent and bear an occasional black scale or hair. Narrowly lanceolate blades are once- pinnate with 10 to 15 pairs of overlapping blue-green pinnae. Sori are in a linear herringbone pattern with matching indu-sia and are...

Polystichum stenophyllum

Evergreen, 6 to 18 in. (15 to 45 cm).Zones 6 to 8. description The rhizome is erect. The grooved green stipes are one-fourth of the frond length and trimmed with long-tailed tan scales. The once-pinnate linear blades are firm and very narrow, ranging from V2 to 1 in. (13 to 25 mm) wide. Frond tips can have a minute, proliferous bud, smaller than a pinhead, near the apex. (They are not obvious.) Fifteen to twenty pairs of serrate, auricled pinnae are rosy pink in new...

Cheilanthes bonariensis

Evergreen, 1 ft. (30 cm).Zones 8 and 9. Apogamous. description The rhizome is short-creeping to erect with dark chocolate-colored, slight stipes to one-fifth of the frond length. The narrow 1- to 11 2-in. (2.5- to 3.8-cm) wide, linear once-pinnate blades have 30 to 40 pairs of many lobed pinnae. The blue-green upper surface is lightly dusted with an occa sional stubby hair. The undersides, however, are magnificently coated with mats of woolly, cream-colored to...

Synonym Polypodium australe

Epithet means from Cambria, an old name for Wales. Wintergreen (summer dormant), 4 to 24 in. (10 to 60 cm). Zones 6 (when heavily winter mulched) to 9. description The rhizome is short- to long-creeping. Stipes are one-half of the frond length, and the apple-green pinnate blades are ovate with the second from the bottom pair of pinnae the longest. The 12 to 18 pairs of pinnae are frequently serrate. Sori without indusia are round and pregnant with bright yellow spores when ripe. The species and...

Arachniodes simplicior East Indian holly fern

Epithet means simpler, referring to the fronds which are less finely divided than those of A. aristata. Evergreen, 1 to 2 ft. (30 to 60 cm).Zones 7 to 9. description The rhizome is long-creeping, producing fronds periodically. The plant is not bushy in the pacific Northwest. The tannish-green stipes with dark basal scales are upwards of one-half of the frond length. Thick radiant blades are bipinnate daggers with expansive two to five lower pairs of pinnae sweeping out well beyond the ultimate,...

Dryopteris erythrosora Autumn fern

Zones (5) 6 to 9.Apogamous. description The rhizome is short-creeping and produces Dryopteris dilatata 'Lepidota Cristata' Dryopteris dilatata 'Lepidota Cristata' a bountiful spring crop of remarkable red-stemmed and red-foliaged fronds. The frond is one-half stipe with an equal portion of broad, shiny, bipinnate, triangular blades with upwards of 10 pairs of pinnae. In time they fade from their coppery-red spring glory to a most acceptable glossy summer...

Tree Ferns

Layering Tree Ferns

Tree ferns are magnificent specimens native to the moist forests of the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and across the entire Southern Hemisphere where they stand tall and dignified. They are indeed treelike and range in height from 3 to 60 ft. (90 cm to 18 m) with members of the Cyatheaceae being the tallest. The arching fronds, among the largest leaves of any plant, flush from the top of the trunk and can reach 20 ft. (6 m). Like most ferns they are ancient plants, predating the dinosaur...

Woodsia polystichoides

Woodsia Polystichoides

Deciduous, 6 to 14 in. (30 to 35 cm). Zones 5 to 8. description The rhizome is erect to creeping with tufts of old stipe bases. Mahogany stipes are jointed, breaking close to the rachis, and are typically one-third of the frond length. Narrow, once-pinnate, lax blades are linear with 15 to 25 pairs of Woodsia polystichoides in the rock garden at the Bellevue Botanical Garden. auriculate (eared), dull green pinnae. The pinnae are stalked as opposed to Woodsia...

Woodwardia orientalis Oriental chain fern

Evergreen, 3 to 5 ft. or more (90 to 150 cm). Zones 9 and 10. description The scaly short ascending rhizome gives rise to a vase of bright green ovate fronds atop a thick green stipe that can be up to one-half the length of the frond. The blade, like those of so many woodwardias, is pinnate-pinnatifid with pointed toothy pinnae. A mature frond produces an astonishing number of little plantlets, suggestive of baby Japanese maple seeds (samaras), on the upper surface....

Polystichum lemmonii Shasta fern

Lemmon (1832-1908), who discovered the species on Mount Shasta in california. Evergreen, 6 to 12 in. (15 to 30 cm).Zones 6 to 8. description The rhizome is erect and creeping, covered with the stubble of old frond stipes. The stipe is one-fourth to one-third of the frond length and has russet scales. The very narrow linear-lanceolate blade is fully bipinnate to bipinnate-pinnatifid. The densely crowded 20 to 30 pairs of pinnae are twisted on a horizontal plane and are...

Woodland Gardens

In the woodland garden, ferns enjoy a site with filtered light shade and soil1 (not to be called dirt) enriched with compost, humus, or the well-draining leaf mold associated with the undisturbed forest floor. Most species appreciate and thrive in acid soil that fortuitously occurs naturally under a canopy of conifers with their annual top-dressing droppings of lightweight needles. A clay soil, while nutritionally dense, is problematic. For most gardeners, it is easier to establish plants in...

Blechnum chilense

Evergreen, 3 to 5 ft. (90 to 150 cm). Zones 7 (with protection) to 9. Dimorphic. Intense red temporarily colors the new fronds on Blechnum brasiliense 'Crispum'. description The rhizome is long-creeping, tossing up sturdy erect fronds at random. Grooved stipes, with abundant basal scales, are the color of weak tea and are one-half of the frond length. The once-pinnate, narrowly oblong blades have 10 to 20 pairs of rubbery pinnae on a bit of a stalk. The extended apex...

Asplenium trichomanes Maidenhair spleenwort

Also from Theophrastus, hair madness. Evergreen, 4 to 8 in. (10 to 20 cm).Zones 3 to 9. description The rhizome is ascending. Glossy reddish-brown stipes with a flattened groove are one-fourth to one-third of the frond length and barely visible under the foliage. Some are persistent for years with batons of upright, naked spikes. Narrow, once-pinnate blades are linear with 20 to 30 pairs of round to oblong, matte green pinnae. Sori and indu-sia are linear in a...

Athyrium rupestre

Deciduous, 6 to 16 in. (15 to 40 cm). Zones 5 to 8. description The rhizome is erect. Plum-red stipes with swollen bases bearing dark scales are one-third of the frond length. Lanceolate to ovate blades are pinnate-pinnatifid with 10 to 15 pairs of pinnae. Sori with fringed indusia are crescent to J-shaped. range and habitat This species is native to well-chilled climates in eastern Russia and Japan where it is a cliff dweller in the mountains. culture and...

Dennstaedtia wilfordii

Kennar Leaf And Flower

Epithet is after Charles Wilford, who collected in China and Japan in the 1800s. Dennstaedtia punctilobula wends its way through a mixed planting in the Kennar garden. Dennstaedtia punctilobula sweeps around boulders along a roadside in New York. Dennstaedtia punctilobula sweeps around boulders along a roadside in New York. Large arching fronds of Dennstaedtia davallioides in the Peters garden. Deciduous, 6 to 16 in. (15 to 40 cm). Zones 4 to 8. description The rhizome is long-creeping....

Davallia

Members of this genus are characterized by furry rhizomes that creep along the surface of the soil, producing baskets of finely divided fronds and tangles of rhizomes. Their common names are often dedicated to various critters including squirrels, rabbits, hares, and even bears epithets that tend to overlap in the literature and certainly in commerce. Basically they are Zone 9 to 11 plants but have a welcome ease of cultivation in households everywhere. Humidity is not critical, nor is the...

Blechnum brasiliense

Evergreen, 2 to 4 ft. (60 to 120 cm). Zones 9 and 10, or greenhouse. description The rhizome is erect, eventually lifting to form a stipe-stubbled trunk of 12 in. (30 cm) in circumference. Fronds form a dramatic upright shuttlecock of open foliage. The succulent, short, 2-in. (5-cm) stipes are dark with matching chocolate-colored linear scales. The obovate blade is widest above the midpoint and tapers strongly at the base. Blechnum brasiliense in the Fernery at the...

Cheilanthes

Cheilanthes are dryland ferns and quite the opposite of the traditional, stereotypical and beautiful woodland shade lovers that evoke visions of greenery in the world's forests. We cherish and cultivate those for a myriad of reasons, but many avid gardeners also attempt the xerics, including cheilanthes, for their unique ornamental qualities as well as the challenge of establishing notoriously difficult species. And challenging they are. Cheilanthes like arid, desertlike habitats and have...

Arachniodes

Synonyms Leptorumohra, Polystichopsis The arachniodes are an elegant and tidy collection of 50 to more than 100 species (depending, per Hassler and Swale 2002 , on the status of the Chinese nomenclature) of well-mannered, primarily evergreen contributions to horticulture. Along with Cyr-tomium and Polystichum, they were once classified as Aspidium. They share the botanical characteristic of kidney-shaped indu-sia with Dryopteris and the polished, frequently bristle-tipped pinnae and pinnules...

Award Winning Ferns

Britain's Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit Program selects plants that are recommended as excellent for garden use based on a number of criteria including decorative value, pest resistance and ease of cultivation. The ferns that have passed their testing program as of April 2005 are Dryopteris affinis 'Crispa Gracilis' Dryopteris affinis'Cristata' (The King) Dryopteris affinis 'Cristata Angustata' Dryopteris affinis 'Polydactyla Mapplebeck' Dryopteris dilatata 'Crispa...

Blechnum spicant Deer fern

Matteucia Struthiopteris

Evergreen, IV2 to 2V2 ft. (45 to 75 cm). Zones 5 to 8. Dimorphic. description The rhizome is erect. Horizontal whorls of evergreen, oblanceolate, sterile fronds are once-pinnate with 40 or more pairs of pinnae that are greatly reduced at the base. The purplish-brown grooved stipes are one-sixth or less of the frond length. Deciduous fertile fronds, with grooved shiny ebony stipes of up to one-half of the frond length, are taller and upright, waving to the breeze to...

Lygodium japonicum Japanese climbing fern

Deciduous to evergreen, to 20 ft. (6 m). Zones 6 (with huge amounts of protection) to 10. description The rhizome is short-creeping. Eight-inch (20-cm) stipes, soft and apple green when unfurling, mature to brittle tan shoots. in indoor or warm situations the fronds grow just slightly slower than blackberry vines and, especially when given appropriate support, can twist and tower to 20 ft. (6 m). Outdoors in Zone 8, one or two fronds faithfully emerge in midsummer and,...

Coniogramme

Coniogramme is a little-known genus that includes a collection of species with a nontraditional profile. Rather than feathery plumes, these have strap-shaped pinnae resembling those from the more familiar genus Pteris. The common name says it all. There are upwards of 20 species worldwide primarily in Africa, eastern Asia, and the Pacific Rim including Japan and Hawaii. The typical species has a short-creeping rhizome and linear upright fronds. Stipes are grooved and have a V-shaped vascular...

Astrolepis

Astrolepis (star-scaled cloak fern) species were, until 1992 (Benham and Windham), classified under the broad cloak of Cheilanthes and or Notholaena and, more specifically, traditionally grouped as Cheilanthes or Notholaena sinuata or varieties thereof. The upper pinnae surfaces have a smattering of the namesake starry hairs, and the lower surfaces are crowded with a thick mat of matching silver to tan starry scales. Veins are free, forking, and barely visible. There are two vascular bundles as...

Adiantum aleuticum Western maidenhair

Balancing Fern Canyon

Deciduous, 11 2 to 21 2 ft. (45 to 75 cm).Zones 3 to 8. description The rhizome is short-creeping, producing bushels of bright green foliar fans on upright, iridescent blackish, grooved stipes. Unlike the extremely closely related (and former namesake) A. pedatum, A. aleuticum produces green, not cherry red, new growth. The stipes are one-half or more of the total frond structure and fork at their tips into two radiating and continuous branches. A close look may reveal a single fan-shaped...

New York

1000 Washington Avenue Brooklyn, NY 11225 718 623-7200 www.bbg.org 635 S. Broadway Route 9 Tarrytown, NY 10591 914 631-4481 www.lyndhurst.org Bronx River Parkway at Fordham Road Bronx, NY 10458 718 817-8700 www.nybg.org State Historic Park P.O. Box 58 Oyster Bay, NY 11771 516 922-9200 www.plantingfields.org

Polystichum deltodon

Epithet means deltoid, triangular in outline. Evergreen, 8 in. 20 cm . Zones 6 to 8. description The rhizome is erect and the deeply grooved stipe, which is one-fourth of the frond length, has an occa The low-growing Polystichum deltodon serves as a reliable foreground evergreen with kindred shade lovers. The low-growing Polystichum deltodon serves as a reliable foreground evergreen with kindred shade lovers. sional appressed tan scale. Blades are lanceolate, once-pinnate with 15 to 18 pairs of...

Pyrrosia linearifolia

Evergreen, 3 to 8 in. 7.5 to 20 cm .Zones 8 with protection to 10. description The rhizome is creeping. Short pseudo-stipes merge gradually into the blades with the whole being shaped like a narrow paddle. The fronds are lax to procumbent and with their pubescent hairs look rather dull, but not uninteresting. Scattered hydathodes are visible on the upper frond surface. Sori without indusia are in rows of dots on either side of the midrib veering on an angle toward...

Arachniodes standishii Upside down fern

Epithet is perhaps after John Standish 1814-1875 , a British nurseryman who imported from Japan. Evergreen, 2 to 3 ft. 60 to 90 cm .Zones 5 to 9. description The rhizome creeps slowly. Grooved pea-green stipes are one-third of the frond length. The stipe scales are a dark russet and especially prevalent on new growth. Broadly ovate blades, produced in a more vaselike arrangement than other arachniodes, are tripinnate-pinnatifid to, rarely, quadripinnate with 10 to 18 pairs of borderline glassy,...

Cyathea cooperi

Australian tree fern, coin spot tree fern Synonyms Sphaeropteris cooperi, Alsophila cooperi Epithet is after British naturalist Daniel Cooper 1817-1842 . Evergreen, 40 ft. 12 m . Zones 8 with heavy winter protection to 10. description The trunk, up to 6 in. 15 cm in diameter, can quickly reach 40 ft. 12 m and has coin spots, oval scars where old fronds have broken away. Bipinnate-pinnatifid broadly lanceolate fronds on long stipes arch to 15 ft. 4.5 m long. Stipes and trunk have white scales...

Pyrrosia polydactyla

Synonym Pyrrosia polydactylis Epithet means many fingered. Evergreen, 8 to 12 in. 20 to 30 cm . Zone 8 with protection to 10. description The rhizome is short-creeping. Upright stipes, which are pale green as juveniles and blackish in old age, support semicircles of palmate, three- to five-lobed, matte green, horizontal blades. New growth emerges cloaked in silvery, pussy foot fuzz and recedes in time with a modest sprinkling of residual hairy stars on the upper surface and an array of crowded...

Selaginella borealis

Evergreen, 2 to 6 in. 5 to 15 cm .Zones 3 to 8. description Small, tightly woven, thin threads of dark green braided foliage zigzag with airy twigs of scattering branches. The stalks are short and grow from slowly creeping wiry underground stems. range and habitat This is primarily a native of extremely cold habitats from China through Mongolia to Russia. There it grows on the exposed steppes adjacent to Lake Baikal, which at 5720 ft. 1720 m is the world's deepest...

Dryopteris dickinsii

Kidney Shaped Sorus Dryopteris

Dickins 1838-1915 . Evergreen, 1V2 to 2 ft. 45 to 60 cm . Zones 6 to 8. Apogamous. description The rhizome is short and erect. The grooved stipes are one-quarter of the frond length with small scales, usually brownish. The once-pinnate narrow blades are a refreshing light green and have shallowly scalloped pinnae. The lowest pinnae pair is shorter and inclined slightly downwards. The sori are submarginal and covered with a kidney-shaped indusium. range and habitat...

Pyrrosia sheareri

Evergreen, 11 2 to 2V2 ft. 45 to 75 cm .Zones 7 to 10. description The rhizome is short-creeping and not wiry. Succulent pea-green stipes are at least V4 in. 6 mm in diameter, covered with fawn-colored, downy stellate hairs and are one-third or more of the frond length. It is flat, but not grooved, on the upper surface. Simple blades unfurl in shimmering silver fleece and at maturity are leathery, dark green, and frequently cordate at the base. The contrasting, prominent midrib and parallel...

Dryopteris decipiens

Deciduous to evergreen winter cold dependent , 1 to 1V2 ft. 30 to 45 cm . Zones 5 to 8. Apogamous. description The rhizome forms an erect crown. Spare rosettes of blunt-tipped, pinnate-pinnatifid fronds, with a silky opalescent pink glow, grow shyly. The short, grooved stipes are usually less than one-fourth of the frond length. There are 15 to 20 pairs of pinnae with the lower pair flaring forward and downwards. Spores are produced reluctantly on medial sori. range and...

Goniophlebium

Goniophlebium angled vein, in reference to the arrangement of the veins is a genus of 17 species, classified until relatively recently as Polypodium from which they are separated based on several characteristics including their venation pattern. In nature they are found in the Pacific Islands and Asia. Goniophlebium persicifolium is similar to G. subauricula-tum in form and garden value. Both plants are widely distributed as natives in the tropical world. Goniophlebium subauriculatum, described...

Rumohra

Gardens Rich Brothers Tree Ferns

Rumohra was named in honor of Karl von Rumohr 1785-1843 , an artist from Dresden, Germany. The species, numbering from one to eight, are Southern Hemisphere natives. The recognized species of distinction, Rumohra adi-antiformis resembling maidenhair, a rather peculiar and in Quercifilix zeylanica in the Fernery at the Morris Arboretum. Quercifilix zeylanica in the Fernery at the Morris Arboretum. Rumohra adiantiformis spreads gently with rich, low foliage in shades of deep green in the Duryee...

Bulbils

I once saw a program where a professional, who should have known better, described how to grow ferns from cuttings. This was especially interesting and disconcerting since ferns do not grow from cuttings. And folks wonder why they have little luck with fern propagating. Growing from bulbils, or bulblets little nodules along the fern's rachis, the stemlike section of the leafy portion of the frond , comes close, but is not the same. Cystopteris bulbifera has bulbils the color and size of peas...

Polystichum xiphophyllum

Evergreen, 1V2 ft. 45 cm . Zones 6 7 and 8. Apogamous. description The rhizome is erect. Stipes are grooved, dark-scaled, and one-fourth of the frond length. The lanceolate once-pinnate blades with 20 to 25 pairs of pinnae have a silvery green patina. The detached auricle is prominent and gives the pinnae an upward-running tail adjacent to the rachis. Sori with peltate indusia are medial. range and habitat This is a rare species from China, Taiwan, and India....

Bogs

Certain ferns are at their lush and robust best in spongy to boggy soil. These include the osmundas, Onoclea sen-sibilis, a number of woodwardias, and some dryopteris and thelypteris. Most can be and are admired in their wild habitats especially from the midwestern to the eastern United States. Private gardens usually do not come with pre-existing bogs, however, but bogs can be created artificially. First bury a plastic liner in the desired spot lowland please . The liner should be punched with...

Northern maidenhair five finger fern

Epithet means palmate or pedate, as in a bird's foot. Deciduous, 1V2 to 2 ft. 45 to 60 cm .Zones 3 to 8. description The rhizome is short-creeping. Brittle stipes are purple-black and usually one-half the length of the frond. Adiantum pedatum 'Miss Sharpies'with Acerpalmatum HO 19. They fork into two major branches that curl in an indeterminate recurved circular pattern. The six to eight pinnae per branch become progressively smaller, eventually forming a small curlicue. Note that, unlike...

Polystichum neolobatum

Asian saber fern, long-eared holly fern Epithet means new lobed or new Polystichum lobatum. Evergreen, IV2 to 2 ft. 45 to 60 cm .Zones 5 to 8. Apogamous. description The rhizome is erect. The slightly grooved green stipes are barely visible under the lush coating of papery, reddish brown V2-in. 13-mm prominent scales. These are reduced in size as they proceed up the frond, but are in such numbers that the viewer imagines the rachis to be ruddy. The succulent stipes are one-third of the frond...

Asplenium incisum

Evergreen, 6 to 12 in. 15 to 30 cm .Zones 6 to 9. description The rhizome is erect. Stipes of one-fourth the frond length are green and slightly grooved. Narrowly lanceolate blades are once-pinnate or more commonly bipinnate with 10 to 20 pairs of pinnae. They are widest in the The forked form of Asplenium foreziense in the Baggett garden. Photo by Jim Baggett. The forked form of Asplenium foreziense in the Baggett garden. Photo by Jim Baggett. The alpine Asplenium foreziense serves nobly in...

Ferns on Walls

Growing ferns on walls is a step more specialized and challenging than rock gardening but may include a number of species suited for both habitats. It appears to be the only situation that will support the lifestyle of that wretchedly difficult but beautifully photogenic Ceter-ach officinarum. Wall dwellers tend to prefer grit rather than soil and are frequently seen peering from crevices in venerable old buildings in Britain and Europe. And what a wondrous sight they are. It is possible,...

Polystichum rigens

Evergreen, IV2 ft. 45 cm .Zones 6 to 8. Apogamous. description The rhizome is erect. Stipes are grooved and green with brown scales concentrated at the base. They are one-third or more of the frond length. Radiant, narrowly triangular, bipinnate blades are a rich deep green. Twelve to fifteen pairs of sickle-shaped pinnae are tipped with sharp spines. Sori with peltate indusia are medial. range and habitat Polystichum rigens is a rare species from the montane forests of China and Japan. culture...

Cyrtomium caryotideum

Epithet means nutlike, from Greek caryo or caryota, referring to the leaves which are similar to those on nut trees. Evergreen, 2 ft. 60 cm .Zones 7 to 10. Apogamous. description The rhizome is erect. Straw-colored stipes with dark basal scales are one-third to one-half of the frond length. Oblong, once-pinnate blades bear three to six pairs of pale green pinnae and a large terminal pinna. Slightly stalked 2-in. 5-cm long triangular pinnae are auricled frequently on both sides of their base...

Dryopteris xaustralis Dixie wood fern

Epithet means southern. Semievergreen, 4 to 5 ft. 1.2 to 1.5 m . Zones 4 5 to 9. description The rhizome is short-creeping and branches modestly. The stipe is one-third of the frond length, and the creamy green, lanceolate blades are pinnate-pinnatifid. There are 16 to 20 pairs of pinnae with the fertile upper portions reduced in size and bearing abortive spores. range and habitat Like its parents, this fern is native to dampish areas of the southeastern swath...

Adiantum poiretii Mexican maidenhair

Pacific Maidenhair Fern

Epithet is after French naturalist Jean Poiret 1755-1834 . Deciduous, 8 to 24 in. 20 to 60 cm . Zones 8 and 9. description The rhizome is short- to long-creeping. Deep cranberry-black, smooth stipes are one-fourth to one-half of the frond length. Oval to narrowly triangular blades are bi-pinnate to tripinnate and carry the stipe color into the base of the stalked, softly scalloped pinnules. Marginal sori are oblong beneath the false indusia and infused with an unusual for the genus yellow...

Selaginella Stauntoniana

Selaginella bigelovii after physician-botanist John Milton Bigelow, 1804-1878 , the bushy spikemoss, straddles the California-Mexico border where it clings to rocks on assorted substrates. Slender green fingers extend horizontally from tawny 3- to 4-in. 7.5- to 10-cm stems. It is reputed to be hardy in Zones 8 to 10. Selaginella densa crowded is an aptly named velvety green, furry creeper native from canada down through the backbone of the Rocky Mountains to higher elevations in Arizona. The...

Athyrium filixfemina Lady fern

Rickard Ferns

Deciduous, 3 to 6 ft. 90 to 180 cm .Zones 4 to 8. description The rhizome is stout and erect. Succulent, grooved, greenish-tan stipes are swollen at the base, with dark brown scales, and are up to or sometimes exceeding half of the frond length. Lanceolate blades are bipinnate-pinnatifid with 20 to 30 pairs of pinnae. New fronds are produced throughout the season. Sori and indusia are linear, crescent or hook-shaped athyroid . range and habitat Athyrium filix-femina...

Beech ferns

Depending on your age, the three Phegopteris species may be more familiar as members of the genus Thelypteris and to many of us are recognizable under both classifications . They have many common characteristics including a fuzz of clear needlelike hairs, a pair of vascular bundles looking remarkably, at their base, like peanuts in a shell , creeping rhizomes or erect rhizomes with roots that produce creeping runners, a botanical distinction , and deciduous fronds. Currently Phegopteris is...

Polypodium formosanum Caterpillar fern

Ferns With Green Rhizomes

Wintergreen, 18 to 24 in. 45 to 60 cm .Zones 9 and 10. description The striking creeping rhizome, crisscrossing itself freely in a tangle, is thick and a chalky pale green. It has small black scales as well as minute black craters technically known as phyllopodia that are the scarred stumps left after the fronds are shed. The chocolate-colored stipes are one-half Yellow sori add interest to the fertile frond of Polypodium cambricum 'Semilacerum Falcatum O'Kelly,...