Pedal Evidence and Forensic Considerations

The crime scene often involves serologic evidence, such as blood. A gait pattern may be visible in the blood, showing either a bare or socked foot. Many variations may present themselves at one crime scene a full print of one or both feet or a partial print of, for instance, the forefoot area of one foot and the heel of the other. Some factors to be considered (again, depending on their presentation and the abilities of the evaluator) include step length, stride length, and foot plant. If there...

Motor Vehicle Crash Trauma

Pediatric motor vehicle occupants can sustain serious or fatal injuries in a crash, but fatal injuries usually involve severe central nervous system damage or intraabdominal hemorrhage and rarely involve the lower extremities. However, a patient with bilateral femoral fractures can develop hypovolemia and shock with minimal external signs of blood loss. Hip fractures and patella fractures are indications of a high-speed impact and are more common in unrestrained occupants. When small children...

Chronology of Early Forensic Radiology of the Lower Extremity

On a cold Christmas Eve in Montreal, George Holden shot Tolson Cunning in the leg. The wound healed, but the injured limb remained symptomatic. His surgeon, Dr. R. C. Kirkpatrick, requested an X-ray photograph of the area to be taken by Professor John Cox of the Physics Department at McGill University. This was accomplished on February 7, 1896 and showed the bullet lodged between the tibia and fibula (Fig. 2). This image was submitted to the court during Mr. Holden's trial for attempted murder....

Disease or Degenerative Change

Degenerative changes are frequently helpful or even definitive in the identification of unknown remains. We have already seen examples in the Ruxton case (14,15) and in the case of heel spurs of the calcaneus. Judging from the literature, it is rare to be able to match skeletal remains by lesions that arise secondary to disease processes. However, certain diseases have such distinctive features that they could be used for identification purposes. Several examples are shown in Figs. 25-29....

Legal Assessment of Traffic Accidents

According to police statistics, only a small percentage of traffic accidents are the result of incidental factors or the poor conditions of vehicles. The most common causes of road collisions are errors by drivers and improper behavior of pedestrians who often are both the causes and victims of traffic accidents. From Forensic Science and Medicine Forensic Medicine of the Lower Extremity Human Identification and Trauma Analysis of the Thigh, Leg, and Foot Edited by J. Rich, D. E. Dean, and R....

The Role of the Anthropologist in Death Investigation

A basic contribution of the forensic anthropologist in the standard forensic setting (coroner medical examiner office) is to help create a biographic profile based on skeletal assessment of sex, age, ancestry, stature, etc., for the otherwise unidentified (including Fig. 2. He died with his boots on. These beautifully preserved cowboy boots protected the lower extremities of an individual found skeletonized in a wooded flood plane beside a stream. Much of the skeleton could not be located, and...

Massive Soft Tissue Injury to the Lower Extremity Mangled Extremity

Perhaps the greatest urban enemy of the lower extremity in children is the riding lawnmower. In the United States, it is estimated that eight children daily sustain injuries while riding mowers (12). In some cases, a child is struck in the leg by a mower because the operator does not see the child. The other (and more dangerous) injury occurs when the child is a passenger on a riding mower (i.e., in the operator's lap) and slides out of his seat and falls off the mower. In this case, the mower...

Timing and Mechanism of Injury

Comparison of postmortem (a) and perimortem (b) fracture margins. Fig. 3. Comparison of postmortem (a) and perimortem (b) fracture margins. and postmortem, when based on the skeletal assessment, is not abrupt and varies with the individual, age, and the depositional environment. Individual biological variation, sexual dimorphism, and age-related changes in leg bone size, cortical thickness, cross-sectional morphology, trabecular integrity, and resilience need to be considered in the...

The Human Skeleton In Forensic Medicine 1994

Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen and the early history of the roentgen rays, Springfield, 111 Charles C. Thomas, 1934. 2. Linton, OW. News of X-ray reaches America days after announcement of Roentgen's discovery. Am J Roent 165 471-472 (1995). 3. Brecher R, Brecher E. The rays a history of radiology in the United States and Canada, Baltimore, Md Williams and Wilkins, 1969. 4. Halperin EC. X-rays at the bar 1986-1910. Invest Radiol 23 639-646(1988). 5. Cox J, Kirkpatrick RC. The new photography...

Positioning

Menkes Syndrome

Standard radiographic positions for the lower extremity are required in order to match features on antemortem radiographs (68). Figures 89 through 96 provide information that can be used to determine how to position the body part and central beam of the X-ray for each standard position. Each positioning photo is accompanied by a sample of the image to be expected from it. Fig. 44. Old periosteal new bone around the distal femur from earlier trauma (arrows). Reprinted from ref. 42 with...

Transport Van Seatbelt Issue

A severely disabled boy in a wheelchair was rolled onto a van and his wheelchair was strapped into a side slot in the vehicle. A seatbelt was secured over the boy's lap, and he was ready for transport home after a visit to his endocrinologist. Just to the left of the boy was a steel post that ran from the floor to the ceiling of the van. While traveling, the van was involved in a minor frontal impact. Immediately afterwards, the driver exited to check on the damage to his front end and the...

Rmr Micro Minerals Mail

Trauma analysis by the forensic anthropologist. In Forensic osteology advances in the identification of human remains. Reichs KJ, ed. Springfield Thomas, 1986 218-228. 2. Fenton TW, Birkby WT, Cornelison JA. Fast and safe non-bleaching method for forensic skeletal preparation. J Forens Sci 48 274-276 (2003). 3. Sommer HG, Anderson S. Cleaning skeletons with dermestid beetles two refinements in the method. Curator 17 290-298 (1974). 4. Russell WC. Biology of the dermestid beetle with...

Other Diseases That Mimic Traumatic Injury

Traumatic Injuries

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a form of genodermatosis (genetic disorder of the skin) that is characterized by sloughing of the dermal layers secondary to minimal trauma. EB is caused by a defect in collagen synthesis and occurs as a dominant or Fig. 1. Epidermolysis bullosa mimics scalded skin from a hot liquid in this infant. The distribution of this disease mimics injury patterns that are usually found in children struggling to get away from the heat source. A bulla (blister) is also seen on...

Patterns of Torture and Terrorism

Physical beating is a widespread form of torture (56). Palmatoria is a form of localized torture virtually unique to the small West African country Guinea-Bissau. Palmatoria involve repetitive blows by a slender rod to the shin, where the tibia lies closest beneath the skin. Ordinary radiographs (of somewhat limited quality) have shown a periosteal reaction, presumably as a result of subperiosteal hemorrhage and hematoma. Somewhat peculiar endosteal and medullary changes have also been seen...

Julie Mather Saul ba and Frank P Saul PhD dabfa 1 The Role of the Foot in Death Investigation

Squatting Facets

Academic physical anthropologists are well aware of the importance of the foot (as more enduringly represented by its bony skeleton) in understanding human evolution, which is literally based on the acquisition of upright posture. The relative size of ancient calcanei and other tarsals, along with the curvature of the metatarsals that create the arches of the foot, provide direct clues as to the location and timing of the appearance of the first humans. In our own research on the ancient Maya...

Forensically Significant Skeletal Anatomy

Lumps Around The Tibula Bone

Dean, md Forensically significant cases are those in which remains are recovered that have come from humans who died violently or unexpectedly, or for which the cause of death or manner of death is potentially a legal or otherwise significant issue this may exclude very old or prehistoric remains . This text discusses the subset of forensically significant remains that are partially or completely decomposed, fragmented, or unidentified. This chapter is not...

Ossification Center Appearance and Epiphyseal Union

The appearance and union of the epiphyses associated with bones of the lower extremity can also provide useful information for estimating age at death 73-79 , especially during adolescence. Epiphyses are the bony caps on the ends of long bones and on certain other bony structures. Their appearance and size in radiographic studies of bones with associated soft tissue are particularly useful in determining age at death 80,81 . In examinations of recovered skeletal remains, the small developing...

References

Forensic anthropology and crimes involving children. J Forensic Sci 1976 21 333-339. 2. Ubelaker DH. Methodological considerations in the forensic applications of human skeletal biology. In Biological anthropology of the human skeleton. Katzenberg MA, Saunders SR, eds. New York, NY Wiley-Liss, 2000 pp. 41-67. 3. Bass WM. Human osteology a laboratory and field manual. 3rd ed. Columbia, Mo Missouri Archaeological Society, Inc., 1987. 4. Krogman WM, Igcan MY. The human skeleton in...

Mechanisms of Ankle and Knee Joint Injuries in Traffic Accidents

Pivot Shift Injury Knee Mri Radiology

For many years, the efforts of researchers and car companies have been focused on reducing the degree of trauma in traffic-accident victims 11,29 . Changes in bumper Fig. 22. The pattern of hip dislocation in a frontal collision depends on the initial sitting position of vehicle occupants. See Color Plate III, following page 240. Fig. 22. The pattern of hip dislocation in a frontal collision depends on the initial sitting position of vehicle occupants. See Color Plate III, following page 240....