Positioning

Standard radiographic positions for the lower extremity are required in order to match features on antemortem radiographs (68). Figures 89 through 96 provide information that can be used to determine how to position the body part and central beam of the X-ray for each standard position. Each positioning photo is accompanied by a sample of the image to be expected from it. Fig. 44. Old periosteal new bone around the distal femur from earlier trauma (arrows). Reprinted from ref. 42 with...

Transport Van Seatbelt Issue

A severely disabled boy in a wheelchair was rolled onto a van and his wheelchair was strapped into a side slot in the vehicle. A seatbelt was secured over the boy's lap, and he was ready for transport home after a visit to his endocrinologist. Just to the left of the boy was a steel post that ran from the floor to the ceiling of the van. While traveling, the van was involved in a minor frontal impact. Immediately afterwards, the driver exited to check on the damage to his front end and the...

References

Trauma analysis by the forensic anthropologist. In Forensic osteology advances in the identification of human remains. Reichs KJ, ed. Springfield Thomas, 1986 218-228. 2. Fenton TW, Birkby WT, Cornelison JA. Fast and safe non-bleaching method for forensic skeletal preparation. J Forens Sci 48 274-276 (2003). 3. Sommer HG, Anderson S. Cleaning skeletons with dermestid beetles two refinements in the method. Curator 17 290-298 (1974). 4. Russell WC. Biology of the dermestid beetle with...

Estimating Adult Stature From Skeletal Elements of the Lower Extremity

If the full skeleton is present, the Fully method will likely provide the best estimate of stature. However, skeletal elements are missing or damaged in many cases and thus cannot be measured. In these cases, separate skeletal elements or some combination of elements must suffice as a source of data from which the estimate of stature is to be made. The most common method used to obtain stature estimates from separate skeletal elements is linear regression (27,28). With this technique, the known...

Other Diseases That Mimic Traumatic Injury

Traumatic Injuries

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a form of genodermatosis (genetic disorder of the skin) that is characterized by sloughing of the dermal layers secondary to minimal trauma. EB is caused by a defect in collagen synthesis and occurs as a dominant or Fig. 1. Epidermolysis bullosa mimics scalded skin from a hot liquid in this infant. The distribution of this disease mimics injury patterns that are usually found in children struggling to get away from the heat source. A bulla (blister) is also seen on...

Patterns of Torture and Terrorism

Physical beating is a widespread form of torture (56). Palmatoria is a form of localized torture virtually unique to the small West African country Guinea-Bissau. Palmatoria involve repetitive blows by a slender rod to the shin, where the tibia lies closest beneath the skin. Ordinary radiographs (of somewhat limited quality) have shown a periosteal reaction, presumably as a result of subperiosteal hemorrhage and hematoma. Somewhat peculiar endosteal and medullary changes have also been seen...

Julie Mather Saul ba and Frank P Saul PhD dabfa 1 The Role of the Foot in Death Investigation

Squatting Facets

Academic physical anthropologists are well aware of the importance of the foot (as more enduringly represented by its bony skeleton) in understanding human evolution, which is literally based on the acquisition of upright posture. The relative size of ancient calcanei and other tarsals, along with the curvature of the metatarsals that create the arches of the foot, provide direct clues as to the location and timing of the appearance of the first humans. In our own research on the ancient Maya...

Forensically Significant Skeletal Anatomy

Dean, md Forensically significant cases are those in which remains are recovered that have come from humans who died violently or unexpectedly, or for which the cause of death or manner of death is potentially a legal or otherwise significant issue this may exclude very old or prehistoric remains . This text discusses the subset of forensically significant remains that are partially or completely decomposed, fragmented, or unidentified. This chapter is not...

Ossification Center Appearance and Epiphyseal Union

The appearance and union of the epiphyses associated with bones of the lower extremity can also provide useful information for estimating age at death 73-79 , especially during adolescence. Epiphyses are the bony caps on the ends of long bones and on certain other bony structures. Their appearance and size in radiographic studies of bones with associated soft tissue are particularly useful in determining age at death 80,81 . In examinations of recovered skeletal remains, the small developing...

Mechanisms of Ankle and Knee Joint Injuries in Traffic Accidents

Pivot Shift Injury Knee Mri Radiology

For many years, the efforts of researchers and car companies have been focused on reducing the degree of trauma in traffic-accident victims 11,29 . Changes in bumper Fig. 22. The pattern of hip dislocation in a frontal collision depends on the initial sitting position of vehicle occupants. See Color Plate III, following page 240. Fig. 22. The pattern of hip dislocation in a frontal collision depends on the initial sitting position of vehicle occupants. See Color Plate III, following page 240....