Conventional Solvent Extraction

Solvent extraction is the term used for liquid-liquid extraction as well as leaching since a solvent is used to preferentially separate one or more constituents from either a liquid or a solid mixture. Leaching is a widely used separation process for the following 1) Extraction of edible oils from seeds, beans, nuts, rice bran, wheat germ, coconut and other sources. 2) Extraction of essential oils from flowers, leaves and seeds. 3) Extraction of oleoresins from spices. 4) Extraction of sugar...

References

Co-extrusion Recent Developments Using Cooker Extruders. Cereal Foods World 32(11) 816-819. Bailey, L.N., Hauck, B.W., Sevatson, E.S. and Singer, RE. (1991). Systems for Manufacturing of Ready to Eat Breakfast Cereals Using Twin Screw Extrusion. Cereal Foods World 36(10) 863-869. Bass, C.P. (1985). Co-extrusion The Problems and Some of the Solutions, in Pasta and Extrusion Cooked Foods, Mercier, C. and Cantarelli, C. (eds), Elsevier Applied Science Publ., New York and London,...

Introduction

Extrusion cooking is the process of forcing a material to flow under a variety of conditions through a shaped hole (die) at a predetermined rate to achieve various resulting products (Dziezak, 1989). Extrusion cooking of foods has been practiced for over fifty years. Initially, the role of an extruder was limited to mixing and forming macaroni and ready to eat (RTE) cereal pellets. Today, the food extruder is considered a high temperature-short time bioreactor that transforms raw ingredients...

Partitioning In Aqueous Twophase Systems

The separation of organic compounds by means of their differing distribution between two immiscible organic solvent phases is a routine method of chemical purification in the laboratory and on an industrial scale. This technique is not generally suitable for the purification of biological compounds such as proteins because of their low solubility and tendency to denature in the presence of organic solvents. However, it has long been known that phase separation can also occur with mixtures of...

Uniform Transmembrane Pressure Microfiltration

Circulation systems in the MF module with uniform transmembrane pressure. (Reproduced with the permission from Reference 7 ). On the permeate side of the module, the space which is normally empty is filled with plastic grains in the UTP version as indicated in Figure 1 7 . The high-speed circulation of the permeate causes a pressure drop inside the channels. The pressure drop on the permeate side is adjusted by the permeate pump. This results in a uniform transmembrane pressure over...

Future Technologies And Challenges

The world energy consumption, conservation, environmental concerns, worldwide market globalization, frozen, refrigerated, shelf stable processed food products competition and the high manufacturing costs will force the frozen food products industry to increase R& D challenges and to develop new technologies. These new technologies could be based on 1. Equipment Automation. Improvement in equipment automation, by using sensors and computer control systems to increase equipment efficiency and...

Extraction Circuit Psepl Psep2

Flowsheet of SFE with two-stage separation 4.3. Design criteria Design of a plant for high pressure extraction must be based on the required rate of production and the nature of employed feed. In principle, a distinction must be drawn between the following possibilities - 1 Purification of the feedstock The feed raw material is regarded as the product from which certain components must be removed during the extraction process. Examples being the production of decaffeinated coffee and...

Syneresis

Our discussion now moves from the very slow movement of separating emulsions to the faster flow of syneresis, an earlier process in cheesemaking. Syneresis, the expulsion of whey from shrinking cheese curd, begins immediately after disturbance of the curd by cutting. Control and understanding of conditions affecting rates of syneresis would aid in the reproducible manufacture of quality cheese. Until recently, all methods for measuring syneresis involved mechanical disturbance of the curd...

Column Chromatography

Chromatographic separations involve the partition of a solute between a mobile and a stationary phase. Usually, the stationary phase consists of a particulate matrix packed into a tubular column through which the mobile liquid phase passes. The feedstock is introduced as a pulse into the column and individual components are separated by their differential distribution between the phases. For example, in size exclusion chromatography the stationary phase consists of the liquid held inside porous...