Mechanisms of Inhibition

The inhibition of amplification may be the result of a number of factors, none of which has been investigated thoroughly. Details of the inhibitory effects of some compounds that have been reported in food, clinical, and environmental systems may be found in Tables 1-3. Inhibitors in clinical and environmental are also relevant to food studies because of the animal and plant origins of foods. Inhibition may originate from poorly controlled reaction conditions, from the sample itself, from...

Total Nitrogen

Nitrogen compounds in grapes play important roles as nutrients for microorganisms involved in winemaking and wine spoilage and as aroma and aroma precursors (7). Nitrogen is taken up by the vine roots as nitrate and reduced by the nitrate reductases system to ammonia, transported and stored subsequently as amino acids (7). Compared with fermentable carbon generally present in grapes at > 20 (w v), total nitrogen levels range from 0.006 to 0.24 , of which only 0.0021-0.08 is biologically...

References On Food Microbiology

Giannessi, P., and Matta, M. (1978) Azoto amminico, in Trattato di Scienza e Technica Enologica, Vol. I. (Brescia, A. E. B., ed.) Analisi e Controllo dei mosti e dei Vini, Italy, pp. 87-88. 2. Henick-Kling, T., Edinger, W. D., and Larsson-Kovach, I.-M. (1996) Survey of available nitrogen for yeast growth in New York grape musts. Wein-Wissenschaft 51(3), 169-174. 3. Rapp, A., and Reuther, K. H. (1971) Der Gehalt von Aminosauren in gesunden und edelfaulen Beeren verschiedener Rebsorten. Vitis 10,...

PH Cascade Controller Design

System Analysis Using the Simulation Model A cascade controller of pH coupled with DO control developed here is shown in Fig. 3. Proportional and integral PI , and proportional, integral, and differential PID controllers were used as precompensators of DO and pH in the cascade controller, respectively. The dynamic response of boxes A and B can be analyzed using the simulation model. The analysis is useful for design of the controllers, especially selection of controllers and...