101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

Using this simple 4-step system is the easiest, fastest, and most powerful way to distinguish which food ingredients are toxic to your overall health and which are healthy to consume. There are hundreds, even thousands, of such toxic ingredients that food manufactures use, and it could take you months or maybe even years to dissect all of that information. This program is designed to restore your health and eliminate any Toxic ingredients that may be slowly causing your health to deteriorate. However, as a side effect, you may lose weight due to the change in your diet. If you exercise and lift weights, you may notice an increase in muscle and energy as well. You will immediately notice results within the first week of applying the concepts in this system. All you have to do is follow the proven plan I give you and you will instantly have more energy and vitality. The key is to use the alternative foods in your diet consistently to see the results. Continue reading...

101 Toxic Food Ingredients Overview

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Food Labels and Fiber

The food labels on all packaged foods describe the serving size and how many grams of carbohydrates there are in each serving. One word of caution the food labels break down the carbohydrates into sugars and fibers. Since humans cannot digest fiber very well, the grams of fiber should be excluded from the carbohydrate estimation, especially if the fiber content is particularly high. If you are going to eat a food with 5 grams of dietary fiber or more, you should subtract the dietary fiber content from the total carbohydrate. For example, for a food in which the carbohydrate content is 31 grams per serving, and there are 6 grams of dietary fiber in that serving, calculate the insulin for 31 - 6 25 grams carbohydrate.

Food Additives Colors and Flavors

The 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires that if food processors wish to add a substance to food, they must submit a petition to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with documentation on chemistry, use, function, and safety. On careful review that the substance is safe, the FDA will authorize it with specific conditions. When this amendment was passed, many substances were exempted from complying with the FDA procedure because there were no known hazards in their use at that time. The list of substances became known as the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list. Since 1958, some substances on the GRAS list have been reviewed, and a few, such as cyclamate and red dye 3, were removed because new information linked them to health problems. However, many of the chemicals on the GRAS list have not been rigorously tested and it is likely they will not be tested because of their long-time histories of use without any proof of harm or because their...

Microbial Polysaccharides Incorporated As Food Additives

In the US, polysaccharides which are to be used as food additives are subject to Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) regulations and must be approved by the USDA. Currently only two microbial polysaccharide products have such approval - xanthan and gellan, although curdlan may also be under evaluation. Previously dextran was also an approved food additive, but it is not currently used in food manufacture. In Japan, a wider view is taken and microbial EPS are regarded as natural products. One thus finds the bacterial product cur-dlan being used in various foodstuffs, while pullulan (from the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans) is also acceptable. In the case of pullulan, the polysaccharide also has potential value as a food packaging material, a role which is also strictly controlled.

Food additives

The commonest food additives thought to cause adverse reactions are tartrazine (E102), sunset yellow (E110), annatto, aspartame, benzoic acid and sulphites (Fuglsang et al. 1993). Key epidemiological studies are shown in Table 10.9. Adverse reactions to food additives can occur at any age. A UK study showed a higher reporting of adverse reactions to food additives in the first ten years of life, and more often occurring in females (Young et al. 1987). The mechanism of the reaction is often unknown, and IgE-mediated reactions are rare. Questionnaire-based studies give a high 6.6-7.4 prevalence of self-reported adverse reactions to food additives in the general population. However, when food challenges are used to make the diagnosis, the prevalence falls to about 0.23 . One study shows the risk to be greatest in the atopic population, with no reactions observed in non-atopic individuals (Fuglsang et al. 1994). Virtually all reactions are minor and limited to the skin (worsening of...

The Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs

How are the DRIs used They are the basis for all nutritional plans used by health care facilities and providers, food services, food manufacturers, and others who plan diets. As you will learn below, the Food Guide Pyramid, the research-based food guide developed by the government, is based on the DRIs. In addition, the Daily Values, the information on food labels that helps you determine how a food contributes to your total nutrient intake, are based on the DRIs (see the Appendix Dietary Reference Intakes, page 421).

A brief overview of dietary supplement ingredient regulation in the United States

For products that are regulated by the FDA, the 'intended use' of a product or ingredient is the turnkey that determines whether an item is broadly classified as a food or a drug. Dietary supplements, no matter how they are presented, if intended to be used to supplement the diet, are reviewed by the Office of Special Nutritionals and related offices in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) at FDA. The DSHEA included a number of provisions that apply to dietary supplements alone. As a result of the DSHEA the pre-market safety evaluations that are required for new food ingredients or new uses of approved food ingredients do not apply to dietary supplements. The DSHEA authorized the FDA to establish good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines for dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients and the DSHEA provided guidelines for the display of literature used to market dietary supplement products (Box 1.1). When a manufacturer wishes to market a dietary...

Microencapsulation of Enzymes and Cells for Nonaqueous Biotransformations

The use of biocatalysts in nonaqueous organic solvents is now a well-established method for the preparation of pharmaceutical products (1-2), food ingredients (3-5), and intermediates used in the fine chemicals industry (6-10). One of the advantages of this approach is that it enables the bioprocess operation at much higher concentrations of poorly water-soluble substrates, thus making both the synthesis and product recovery more attractive from a practical standpoint (11,12). However, many enzymes, and certainly microorganisms, still require a substantial amount of water present to maintain their catalytic activity at synthetically useful levels. In these cases, conventional aqueous-organic two-phase systems are still widely used, although the rates of mass transfer and inactivation of biocatalysts at the interface can be a serious drawback (13-16).

Toxicants in foods and their effects on nutrition

Potential sources of toxicants in food include nutrients, natural food toxicants, contaminants, and chemicals or substances intentionally added to food (food additives). Food Additives and Contaminants Food additives can provide many benefits for the consumer and the food producer. Longer shelf life is advantageous not only to the producer but also to the consumer, for whom a longer shelf life means lower prices, reduced spoilage and waste, and fewer trips to the grocery store to stock up. However, some may argue whether such convenience is a benefit or a ploy by the industry to use more of their products. There are a multitude of reasons for using additives, some less meritorious than others (green catsup, anyone ). The bottom line is whether the product is safer with the additive present. Does the product have nutritional negatives, i.e., is it less nutrient dense or higher in saturated fats

Metabolic Control For Enhanced Metabolite Production

A number of microbial processes in the production of various food additives involve limiting one or more critical nutrients. The submerged production of citric acid by A. niger involves limiting both iron and phosphate to achieve maximum yields (14). The production and excretion of maximum amounts of glutamic acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum is dependent on cell permeability. Increased permeability can be achieved through biotin deficiency, through oleic acid deficiency in oleic acid auxotrophs, through the addition of saturated fatty acids or penicillin, or by glycerol deficiency in glycerol auxotrophs (15).

Mutagenesis For Overproduction Of Metabolites

Increased yields of microbially produced food additives can often be achieved by the selection of overproducing mutants. Such desirable mutants will frequently be produced spontaneously or by a mutagenic agent. There are three fundamental types of mutational events (1) nucleotide deletions, (2) base-pair substitutions, and (3) gene duplications. Mutants that result from large deletions have the greatest stability. Mutants exhibiting high levels of reversion to wild-type cells are usually derived from base-pair substitution mutations. Alkylating agents are among the most potent direct-acting mutagenic agents.

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Challenges and Opportunities

In particular, the product developments in the sector of the 'free from certified allergens' products, which guarantee the absence of a group of allergens, are examples of sophisticated foods, which certainly possess growing market potential. This places a double challenge on the flavour industry, as, for example, a tomato-free ketchup certainly has a considerable need for a substantial amount of flavour. Similarly, food additives such as the category fat replacer necessarily lead to a higher demand for flavourings in these products, as the fat's loss of taste has to be compensated.

Food Safety Assessment Compliance with Regulations

The conduct of nonclinical research is a highly regulated function. In the U.S., the substances tested, the manner in which they are tested, and who tests them is governed by guidelines promulgated by the regulatory branch of the federal government. The reasons for regulations are primarily to safeguard the public by ensuring that mechanisms to test food additives, drugs, and other substances adhere to a uniform standard that provides a way to consistently measure the risks and benefits they might pose to the public. Thus, good laboratory practices (GLPs) are regulations that define conditions under which a toxicology study should be planned, conducted, monitored, reported, and archived. Many agencies from the U.S. and other nations have adopted GLPs. In 1983, the U.S. EPA implemented GLP regulations under the mandate of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA, see later) and the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) for pesticide and toxic chemical registration...

Near Critical Gas Solvents

In addition to the general benefits, carbon dioxide which is the only solvent of practical relevance for industrial scale processes, exhibits additional advantages. It is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS-status) for the production of food ingredients by the FDA. It is bacteriostatic and not flammable. It is readily available at high purity and it is inexpensive, the price being largely independent from oil price movements.

Future consumer trends

Consumers must rely on the training and diligence of commercial food workers who have assumed the role of assuring the safety of foods during preparation. Safe storage of foods prepared away from home then transported to the point of consumption raises concerns that temperature abuse could lead to re-emergence of some types of low-incidence foodborne illnesses, such as Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus (Little et al., 2002). These researchers concluded that establishments where the manager had participated in food safety training have less food contamination than those without trained managers. Cohen et al. (2001) evaluated the efficacy of an in-house food safety training program and learned that success was dependent on the motivation of the workers to practice safe food handling behaviors. Workers in food establishments in England, most of whom (95 ) had received some type of food safety training, were surveyed regarding their food handling practices (Clayton et al., 2002)....

Ssf Processes For Food Enzymes

Enzymes have become an integral part of human need in day-to-day life, playing a varied role in several industries, particularly the modern food industry. Production of a variety of food products, ranging from baked foods, syrups, and fruit juices to flavoring agents and dairy products, commonly involves the use of several food enzymes. Almost all the micro-bial enzymes can be produced using SSF systems. Industrially important food enzymes, which include alpha amylase, glucoamylase, lipase, protease, pectinase, inulinase, glutaminase, and tannase, have been widely studied (4,5,19,24-33).

Ingredient Selection

A large number of different types of lipid-based emulsifier can be used as food ingredients, and a manufacturer must select the one that is most suitable for each particular product. Suitability, in turn, depends on factors such as an emulsifier's legal status as a food ingredient its cost and availability, the consistency in its properties from batch to batch, its ease of handling and dispersion, its shelf life, its compatibility with other ingredients, and the processing, storage, and handling conditions it will experience, as well as the expected shelf life and physicochemical properties of the final product.

Models Used in the Determination of Low Dose Response

Public chemophobia has had a marked influence on the way regulatory agencies have handled their determination of permissible levels of toxic compounds. The 1958 Delaney Clause, described in Chapter 5, is an example of such a regulatory product, which excluded approval of a food additive found to induce cancer in humans and animals or the so-called zero tolerance (de minimis) approach to food additives and contaminants. However, the value of zero is completely contingent on the sensitivity of the methods used by the analytical chemist to detect the toxicant. What was available in 1958 in the analytical chemist's instrument arsenal has been far exceeded, going from part per million (ppm) to part per trillion (ppt) and beyond. Thus, in 1958, 1 DDT per million could be detected and currently DDT can be detected in everything, which presents a dilemma for the risk assessor, who has to consider zero tolerance and the increase in detection ability because of analytical advancement.

Production Of Pigments

Monascus pigments may be used as substitutes for traditional food additives, such as nitrites for the preservation of meats (139), and as a potential replacement for synthetic food dyes (181). They have also been used industrially for several years e.g., as yellow hydrosol-uble pigments for candies (140), or red pigments in red rice wine. Monoscus anka and M. pupureus are cultivated in SSF for red pigment production (Table 4.3). Steamed rice is used as the substrate, although oats, wheat, and barley have also been used. The culturing period is approximately three weeks. Certain sugars, amino acids, and metals have been found important for the production, and yields are typically 10-fold higher in both SSF and SmF. Pigment formation could be inhibited by the presence of glucose in the fermentation medium, but could be increased by limited aeration in SmF. It was also observed that an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 increases the pigment production (141). For isolating the...

HERP Values for Selected Substances

Estimated extent of human exposure to the chemical. Human exposure rodent potency (HERP) values or risk ranking for these chemicals were derived by Dr. Ames, and he concluded that carcinogenic hazards from current levels of pesticide residues, water pollution, or food additives are likely to be of minimal concern relative to the background of natural substances. For example, the HERP value for ethyl alcohol in wine is 10,000 times the possible hazard of ethylene dibromide (EDB). However, for wine, philosophically the risk is more acceptable because it is a naturally occurring toxic substance. Although no uniform method or criterion for risk assessment exists among all the government agencies overseeing food safety, in general the FDA has interpreted the Delaney Clause according to the de minimis doctrine to permit the use of carcinogenic food additives with a cancer risk below 1 in 1 million. The National Academy of Sciences concluded that public health would be best served by...

Epidemiology in Food and Nutritional Toxicology

Epidemiological data play an important role in food and nutritional toxicology, such as in the assessing safety of food ingredients, the efficacy of phytochemicals, and incidence of foodborne illnesses. In foodborne illnesses, epidemiology is the tool used to estimate who will get sick from what food substance, how often, and under what conditions. With epidemiological data, one can assess the risks of foodborne hazards and establish priorities for which one may allocate resources. Such increased knowledge can become crucial to consumers, to policymakers for developing strategies to tackle food safety issues, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of food safety programs.

Ongin botanical facts

Lime juice is an excellent meat ten-derizer and flavor enhancer, and it is well known as an ingredient in the mixed drink known as the margarita. Lime also has many nonculinary uses, including the manufacture of perfumes, suntan products, and cattlefeed (lime seeds are believed by some farmers to keep cattle's coats shiny and to prevent the appearance of parasites such as ticks).

Analytical strategies

The disadvantages of case-control studies are the logistics, such as selecting controls and obtaining measurements of pass exposures without introducing bias. Thus, bias can occur during detection and selection of cases and during assessment of exposures. Care must be taken to ensure that controls are identical to exposed people with only the exception of the factor of interest. Retrospective studies have played an important role in safety evaluations at FDA, such as the use of artificial sweeteners and the National Bladder Cancer Study, and in evaluating the etiology for outbreaks of foodborne disease.

Selection of Safety Factors SFs

Dourson and Stara (18) reviewed the regulatory history of SFs and conducted an analysis of SFs used to estimate acceptable daily intakes (i.e., lifetime exposure to, e.g., food additives) in humans. They noted that an SF of 100, applied to an animal NOAEL (expressed as mg kg of diet or mg kg body weight), was recommended by various agencies (including the U.S. FDA). Although the reasons given for the 100-fold SF differed somewhat among agencies, they generally addressed two basic concerns intraspecies (10-fold) and interspecies (10-fold) variability. Recommendations to increase the safety margin are generally based on increased uncertainty (e.g., lack of animal data) or the use of a low-effect level instead of a NOAEL in animals, whereas recommendations to decrease the safety margin are based on decreased uncertainty (e.g., availability of human data). Based on their evaluation of published data, Dourson and Stara (18) concluded that there was support for using 10-fold safety margins...

Future Trends And Potentials

In the foreseeable future, ME will continue to play a central role in the use of bacteria to produce food ingredients. One potential area for the application of ME is the removal of undesirable sugars present in many foods. A typical example is lactose, which is present in liquid dairy products. Many people are lactose-intolerant and cannot consume products in which lactose is present. Engineering LAB to obtain starter cultures with elevated -galactosidase activities has been proposed as a way to eliminate lactose (50). Raffinose is another example. Due to the absence of a-galactosidase, it cannot be degraded intestinally by humans. Consuming it causes intestinal disturbances. Engineering LAB to produce high levels of a-galactosidase and using it as starter cultures for removing raffi-nose has been proposed as a good solution to this problem (50). As a first step, the gene melA encoding a-galactosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum has been cloned (69) and is being expressed in Lac....

Microorganism Selection And Development

Microorganisms are the biocatalysts that produce and maintain a host of enzymatic pathways that are used to produce the food component of interest. The characteristics of a good industrial microorganism for the production of food ingredients are (1) it must be effective in producing large quantities of a single product, (2) it can be efficiently isolated and purified, (3) it is easy to maintain and cultivate, (4) it is genetically stable, (5) it grows best in an inexpensive culture medium, and (6) it is safe for human consumption. The first step is to isolate the hardiest starter culture possible, then to begin strain improvements via classical mutagenesis or genetic engineering. Furthermore, microbial systems are ideal for the production of essential micronutri-ents such as amino acids, vitamins, and enzymes, and bulk ingredients such as organic acids and alcohols, whole cell flavor enhancers, and polysaccharides.

Plant cell tissue culture for the production of active compounds

For plant compounds one can consider several possibilities of biotechnological production plant cell tissue cultures, transgenic plants or plant cells, transgenic microorganisms and isolated enzymes. For transgenic systems it is necessary to know the pathway of production involved and have the genes available. Isolated enzymes can be used only for bioconversions, that is going from a precursor to the next product. One application of PCTC is to provide an alternative method for producing food ingredients and medi-cinals that have traditionally been extracted from field-grown plants. As more is known about the biochemical and genetic regulation of plant secondary metabolism, and more advances are made in the development of yield improvement strategies and design of large-scale bioreactors, commercial application of PCTC-derived molecules is expected to increase. Therefore plant cell tissue culture seems the most interesting alternative to plant metabolite industrial production, provided...

Citrons Lemons and Limes

These citrus fruits originated in northeast India and gradually spread westward to the Middle East and eventually Europe. The citron was imported to ancient Greece from Persia, and initially used as a perfume and for medicinal purposes. From the first century a.d. on it was cultivated in southern Europe. The Romans added the rind of the citron soaked in condiments in their cooking, and the Arabs candied it. There was much confusion over the centuries between citrons, lemons, and limes, the latter two being much later arrivals in the Mediterranean. Citrus fruits were an integral part of Arab cookery, and through Arab mediation also played a role in medieval European cookery, although for northern Europeans they remained an expensive import, one that only the rich could afford, well into the early modern period. Physicians described these fruits as cold and dry and recommended the rind as a digestive and as an antidote to melancholy, the juice boiled down and turned to syrup as a remedy...

Exopolysaccharides As A Source Of Flavor Components

As many microbial exopolysaccharides contain appreciable amounts of 6-deoxysugars, it has been suggested that the polymers might be used as sources of these sugars (102). The 6-deoxyhexoses in turn, could then be used as intermediates in the synthesis of furaneol and its derivatives. These compounds can be used as flavoring agents for the food industry. Furaneol yields a powerful caramel-like flavor, but when modified by the addition of various short chain fatty acid esters gives a range of either meat or fruit flavors. Furaneol is fairly expensive ( 1-200 kg), and it has been proposed that this cost could be reduced through the use of polysaccharide derived deoxysugars. If this were to be achieved economically, it would require release of the sugars from the polymers by enzymic treatment.

Legislative Acceptability Of Microbial Polysaccharides

Before new microbial polysaccharides can be permitted for use as food additives, they must be submitted to a process of approval. In addition to the technological justification for the inclusion of the polymer in foodstuffs, evidence has to be provided of the need to use the polysaccharide and of its safety in use. The producer must also demonstrate that the new additive will benefit the consumer. This covers various categories The World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), joint expert committee on food additives has the responsibility of proposing Acceptable Daily Intakes. Thus an ADI of 0-10mg kgm body weight has been established for xanthan. The Committee divided food additives into three categories After evaluation, detailed specifications for the food additives include identity and purity. Typically, WHO provides data on biological aspects such as ingestion, calorific availability, and digestibility, and on toxicology. Toxicological evaluation...

Urticaria and angioedema

In some patients, chronic recurrent urticaria and angioedema can be due to intolerance to food additives.17 Other causes include drugs, physical factors (cold, pressure, heat, etc.) and foods. However, it should be remembered that no cause can be found in the majority of patients (idiopathic chronic recurrent urticaria). An attempt should be made to identify a cause. If a drug or a food is found to be causative, this should be excluded. In cases where no cause is obvious, the best approach is to treat the condition with the regular use of antihistamine for a period of 6-12 weeks. If the response to antihistamine is not adequate or if symptoms return once antihistamines are discontinued, a trial diet excluding benzoate preservatives, azodyes and salicylate may be helpful. If the condition improves, an open or double-blind challenge may be warranted to confirm the causative relationship. If positive, the diet should be continued for a longer period until spontaneous remission occurs. If...

Diet and behaviour problems

In children, food intolerance has been implicated in hyperactivity or behaviour disorders. It has been claimed by some that children's behaviour improved on a food diet containing few or no additives. Parents often strongly believe that food additives, especially azodyes (e.g. tartrazine), are responsible for the child's behaviour. However, scientific proof is lacking and studies have not been able to prove conclusively the effectiveness of the dietary approach. There are considerable problems in subjecting children to a restrictive diet where behaviour problems already exist. At the current state of knowledge, a dietary approach is not recommended for this common problem.

Clinical Symptoms

Some specific examples include the fava bean, which contains dihydroxyphe-nylalanine (DOPA) that can be decarboxylated to dopamine. Tyramine content can be high in oriental preserved foods such as soy sauce, soybean paste, and various condiments. Swiss cheese has been implicated in outbreaks of histamine poisoning, attributed to Lactoacillus buchneri. Spanish wines have been shown to increase histamine and tyramine content within 5 d of manufacturing.

European countries that successfully set up new databanks

Greece was the first partner of the project to set up its food intolerance databank, in August 1996. The databank is run by the Technological Educational Institution (TEI) of Thessaloniki and covers eight food additives and ingredients milk, egg, gluten, wheat, soya, sulphur dioxide, benzoates and azo colours. The databank is updated annually and currently they have approximately 400 products listed from 25 companies.

Foods for special uses

Dairy products have long been known to be a functional food, as a good source of calcium. Additionally, fermented dairy products such as yogurt and kefir are a source of probiotics, live microbial food ingredients that are beneficial to human health (Roberfroid, 2000). Some probiotics are not part of a fermented milk product but are added to the milk as freeze-dried cultures. Intestinal microflora play an important role in the maintenance of health. Consumption of these live bacterial cultures are thought to affect the microbial ecology of the intestinal tract by colonization and replacement of non-beneficial bacteria (see also Chapter 8). Proposed benefits of the consumption of high levels of certain exogenous bacteria such as strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium include resistance to enteric pathogens, anti-colon cancer effect, strengthening of the immune response and alleviation of lactose intolerance (Sanders, 1999). Prebiotics are inulin-type fructans, i.e. carbohydrates...

Managing and improving product development

Chapter 7 illustrates product development at different points in the food system in four case studies. Management of product development is different among primary production, processing of food ingredients, manufacturing and food service, because of the different scientific and technological bases, the different needs of the target markets and the time for development. It is important to understand that there is a common product development framework but the activities can be different.

Consumer preferences and public health

Y-ers' (persons born between 1977 and 1994) in particular are looking for healthier, fresher, more natural foods (Sloan, 2005). Although they are unwilling to give up convenience, consumers prefer food that has been subjected to minimal chemical treatment, both preharvest and postharvest (Senauer et al., 1991), and they understand less than people once did about potential naturally occurring hazards and proper preparation methods. Reformulation of foods to meet consumer demands may result in foods that are more likely to support growth of pathogens. Food additives are used to enhance the safety and shelf-life of foods, which should be viewed as desirable from the perspective of the consumer. Yet these additives are frequently perceived as unnatural and unsafe, in part because of controversies that have arisen over the years about potential harmful effects of additives such as cyclamates, saccharin, food dyes (e.g. red no. 2), and nitrite, and an apparent distaste for and distrust in...

The Science Of Poisons

Furthermore, we are mainly concerned here with environmental pollutants. The field of toxicology also deals with other toxins, such as pharmaceuticals, food additives, and those that occur naturally. Of particular interest are xenobiotics. Various forms of radiation, if capable of depositing enough energy to break chemical bonds, can also produce toxic effects. Radiation with sufficient energy is called ionizing radiation or just high-energy radiation. Examples include ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma radiation from the electromagnetic spectrum, and high-energy particles such as alpha or beta radiation (helium nuclei and electrons, respectively) from radioactive decay.

The Five Basic Tastes

The five basic tastes are derived from different trans-duction mechanisms located on taste receptor cells and their specific interactions with different types of molecules. In general, acids elicit a sour taste salt elicits a salty taste sugars, some proteins, and amino acid artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame invoke sweetness ions such as potassium and magnesium and organic compounds such as quinine and coffee taste bitter. Umami, recently recognized as an additional basic taste, is associated with some amino acids such as glutamate, the common culinary form of which is monosodium glutamate (MSG). These compounds interact with taste receptors and cause an increased release of transmitter, which in turn stimulates primary afferent taste fibers.

Action Against Allergy

Action Against Allergy, whose address is PO Box 278, Twickenham, Middlesex TW1 4QQ, adopts a wide definition of allergy, being convinced that its effects range from moderate symptoms to a severely debilitating chronic condition. AAA believes these can be triggered by a wide range of causes, including food, food additives, pollutants and chemicals.

Methodological issues 1021 Defining adverse food reactions

In this chapter we will focus on food allergies as this form of adverse food reaction is the best studied and associated with the highest morbidity. Additionally, we will describe adverse reactions to food additives. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, most reactions are caused by a limited range of foods. In infants and young children, the commonly implicated foods are cows' milk, egg, soy, wheat and peanuts. For older children, teenagers and adults, foods such as fish and shellfish are also a significant problem.

Some brief comments on the case studies

The third case study demonstrated a step in a continuing programme for the generation of new and more valuable specialised food ingredients from a major food raw material. In this, highly sophisticated processing was employed, which had to be developed so that it was successful not only in production but also in the market. The basic information came from the literature, and this was further generated and extended, and industrially implemented, by the development technologists. There was much technical work to be done, both technical development in the product and in the processing, and in the technical sales. There were also quite major design and commissioning to be undertaken and with them capital expenditures, and marketing development. The resulting high-grade, highly specified ingredient had to be produced and exported to match into expensively promoted manufactured foods with elaborate and demanding acceptance criteria.

Selenium Deficiency and Supplementation

It is known that selenium intake and plasma selenium levels decline in infants fed selenium-poor milk formula before meat-derived food additives are fed as 'beikost' compared to breastfed babies. Nevertheless, selenium supplementation appears not indicated in premature babies provided adequate nutrition is achieved. However, during pregnancy and the postpartum period the maternal plasma selenium status is decreasing because of considerable transfer of the trace element to the growing fetus via the placenta (1-4 xg of selenium per day) and via breast milk (3-6 xg of selenium per day) to the feeding baby in addition to enhanced maternal urinary losses. Therefore, adequate supplementation of both trace elements to the pregnant and lactating mother is indicated in areas of limited or inadequate supply of selenium and or iodine. Selenium supplementation in children with congenital hypothyroidism on T4 treatment did not affect serum thyroid hormone concentrations or the impaired T3 T4 ratio...

Unknown Effects on Human Health

Foods, then the industry will have the incentive to regulate itself or risk alienating the customer. Consumer interest groups, on the other hand, are demanding mandatory labeling. People have the right to know what they are eating, argue the interest groups, and historically the industry has proven itself to be unreliable at self-compliance with existing safety regulations. The FDA's current position on food labeling is governed by the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, which is only concerned with food additives and not whole foods or food products that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The FDA contends that GM foods are substantially equivalent to non-GM foods, and therefore not subject to more stringent labeling. If all GM foods and food products are to be labeled, the Congress must enact sweeping changes in the existing food-labeling policy. Food labels must be designed to clearly convey accurate information about the product in simple language that everyone can understand. This...

Food Biotechnology Products

Nowadays, traditional and modern biotechnology processes are used to produce a wide variety of foods and food additives. Ethanol, fermented milk products, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, polysaccharides such as xanthan, single-cell protein, colorants, flavors and fragrances, and various acids such

Micronutrients and Microparticles

Both in food and water supply, metals and minerals, as well as other microparticles, are abundant, and as such more common as part of pollution in industrialized areas. These particles may act in different ways with the immune system, causing primary or secondary effects. It has been suggested that exposure to xenobiotic-like metals may induce immune responses in autoimmune diseases. Such reactions have been related to effects of mercury 105 , cobalt, zirconium, beryllium, silver, and aluminum 54 , Especially aluminum is ubiquitous in the Western culture and represents the most widely used trace element in food, water, soil, and pharmaceutical agents. Moreover, food additives and processed foods, such as cheese, baked goods, grain products, cake, and pancake mixes, vending machine powdery, milk, cream powder substitute, and soy-based milk formulae, sugar and frozen dough, add substantial amount to Al intake. Additionally, different substances, when added to water and even water...

Production Of Exopolysaccharides

On this basis, xanthan has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive without any specific quantity limitations (131). Xanthan gum has been used in a wide variety of foods for a number of important reasons, including emulsion stabilization, temperature stability, compatibility with food ingredients, and pseudoplastic rheological properties (131). For recovering the xanthan, the cells are usually removed first, either by filtration or centrifugation (133). Further purification may include precipitation using water-miscible nonsolvents (isopropanol, ethanol, acetone), addition of certain salts, and pH adjustments (133). One SSF-based process for the production of xanthan gum utilized a bacterial culture of Xanthomonas campestris (134). The exopolysaccharide was produced on a number of agro-industrial residues or byproducts such as spent malt grains, apple pomace, grape pomace, citrus peels, and sugar...

Angioedema and Urticaria

TREATMENT The key to treatment is to determine the underlying cause since urticaria is always present secondary to an underling immunologic process. Elimination of the inciting factor is curative. Allergy testing may be useful for recurrent cases. In acute urticaria, an etiology is found 20 to 30 of the time and most commonly includes drugs, food or food additives, intravenous radio-opaque contrast medium, hymenoptera stings, infections, or systemic inflammatory diseases. Marked emotional tension may precipitate or exacerbate the condition. Cold, pressure, and sunlight may trigger urticaria in rare familial or sporadic cases. Often, however, the cause cannot be determined. Cold compresses often give relief. Use of subcutaneous epinephrine injection may be necessary for hypotension or airway involvement. In chronic cases the etiology is found in less than 5 of cases.

Historical Perspectives

Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are grouped under three broad groups, brown, red, and green, based on pigmentation. These are referred to as Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae, and Chlorophyceae respectively. They have a long history of exploitation and cultivation. They are used directly as food or are processed to yield products used as food additives, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals (14).

Future Technologies And Challenges

The manipulation of the freezing point of food ingredients and raw materials, by using biotechnology principles, ingredients and or changes in its physical characteristics and chemical structure without affecting its nutritional, quality and flavor values, open new R& D opportunities. Major improvements could be accounted, (in the finished product quality, food product shelf-fife, the savings in energy conservation, and the frozen products price), if the food industry could produce, store, and distribute refrigerated and frozen raw materials, vegetables and processed food products at higher temperatures.

Food Intolerance and Allergy

Many people eat a variety of foods and show no ill effects however, a few people exhibit adverse reactions to certain foods. Food sensitivities refer to the broad concept of individual adverse reactions to foods. Food sensitivities are reproducible, unpleasant reactions to specific food or food ingredients. There are many types of adverse reactions to foods, e.g., hives, headaches, asthma, and gastrointestinal complaints. Food sensitivities can be divided into primary and secondary sensitivities (Table 10.1). Individuals who display idiosyncratic reactions to foods show a link between ingestion of such foods and their illness but without any defined mechanisms. The symptoms associated with idiosyncratic reactions can be from trivial to life threatening. For many cases, the role of specific food ingredients in causing idiosyncratic reactions remains to be determined. The cause-and-effect relationship can only be established through carefully controlled double-blind food challenges. An...

Recommended readings

Over the years, many tests have been devised to determine the adverse effects of chemicals in living organisms. Procedures are available for use with intact animals, laboratory-cultured single-cell organisms, isolated organs (perfused liver or lungs), or mammalian cell lines. Toxic endpoints used by investigators range from the traditional acute lethality, weight loss, and carcinogenesis to exciting new tests for effects of immunosuppression, behavioral aberrations, and genetic injury. Given this spectrum of procedures, an orderly and systematic approach to toxicity testing is undeniably needed. One of the first proposals in the U.S. for a systematic strategy involved the safety decision tree approach of the Food Safety Council Scientific Committee in 1980. In 1982, the publication titled Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives used in Foods (also known as Redbook I) was developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bureau...

Study questions and exercises

Distinguish between intentional and incidental food additives. Provide a few examples of each and describe how incidental additives get into foods and why intentional additives (function of additives) are added to foods. 2. Discuss how the Delaney Clause has impacted on the use of food additives in foods and the implication this clause has on safety evaluation of additives. Put into perspective the benefits and risks of additives in foods. 4. The federal government reviews the safety of new food additives before they can be used in foods sold on the market. Describe the agencies involved and how laws in the U.S. assist promotion of food safety. Foulke, J.E., A fresh look at preservatives, FDA Consum., 23-31, October 1993. Hatchcock, J.N., and Rader, J., Food additives, contaminants and natural toxins, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Shils, M.E., Olson, J.A., and Shike, M., Eds., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1994. Henkel, J., From shampoo to cereal seeing to the safety of...

Enzyme Engineering

Increasingly, enzymes are being used as biocatalysts in manufacturing bulk chemicals, pharmaceutical and agrochemical intermediates, active pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients 9-13 . Enzymes offer a number of advantages over chemical catalysts in that they are derived from natural and renewable resources, are biodegradable, typically operate under mild conditions of temperature and pH, and generally offer exquisite selectivity in both reactant and product stereochemistry 14,15 . Despite the tremendous potential offered by enzymes as biocatalysts, applications are frequently hampered by evolution-led catalytic traits 16 . Enzymes have evolved to catalyze specific reactions under certain environmental conditions. From an industrial point of view, many enzymes are not readily amenable to industrial-scale use due to the extremes of temperature, pressure, pH, and other conditions used in such processes.

Formulations

Formulation is the stage of product manufacture in which the drug is combined with various excipients to prepare a dosage form for delivery of the drug to the patient. Excipients are defined by IPEC-America34 as ''substances other than the pharmacologically active drug or prodrug which are included in the manufacturing process or are contained in a finished pharmaceutical product dosage form.'' These include binders to form a tablet, aggregates to keep the tablet together, disintegrants to aid dissolution once the drug is administered, and coloring or flavoring agents. Excipients help keep the drug in the desired form until administration, aid in delivering the drug, control the release rate of the drug, or make the product more appealing in some way to the patient.

The future

Food law is a dynamic entity driven by changing technologies and consumer needs. As such it is inevitable that labelling law will seek to try to meet the needs of those who require information about a product in order to avoid certain medical conditions. This need has been recognised on a global basis Codex Alimentarius has proposed that all compound ingredients which constitute more than 5 of a finished product (as opposed to the present level of 25 ) should be fully declared on food labels, thus revealing the hidden secrets of their potential allergens. It is questionable whether or not this change will actually help the situation for sufferers, as there is at least as great a possibility of the potential allergen being in the undeclared 5 as in the undeclared 25 . The European Commission is considering whether or not this approach should be adopted within Community law. The Commission is also considering an amendment of the Food Labelling Directive to disapply the exemptions to...

Summary

In this chapter we have seen something of the difficulties which face customers who may have an allergic reaction to a particular food ingredient. We have also seen something of the difficulties faced by food manufacturers in meeting the growing clamour for a greater variety of prepared foods at lower cost whilst trying to safeguard the interests of allergy sufferers. It would be impractical to eliminate from the diet food ingredients which are perfectly harmless to the vast majority of the population. The way forward therefore lies in the provision of good information about exactly what is in each food. Labelling exemptions which provide some flexibility and saving on label space may prove to be a trap for the unwary, as they may mask the presence of ingredients which, even in small quantities, may provoke an allergic reaction. Worse still is the situation where food is sold loose, packed on the premises or sold at a catering outlet. In this case the customer is likely to see little...

Camphor

(Cinnamonium camphora) Camphor, though solid, is the essential oil from this tree, made by distillation of the shoots. Aboriginal people observed sanctions in the gathering of camphor. The Malayan Jokuns, for example, used to believe that there is a bisan, or spirit, that looks after the camphor trees, and that without propitiating the spirit, it would not be possible to get the camphor. The bisan makes a shrill noise at night, and that is a sign that there are camphor trees about (actually the noise is made by a cicada). The offering to the bisan was simply a part of the food being taken into the jungle. No prayers were offered, but all food had to be eaten dry, without condiments. Salt must not be pounded fine, or the camphor would only be found in fine grains. Conversely, the coarser the salt, the larger the camphor grains (Skeat).

New terminology

'New ingredients' may be regarded as adulterants in foods unless they are naturally occurring or GRAS (generally recognized as safe). An expert panel in the FDA grants GRAS status to food ingredients. Such components are classified as food additives. Food additives that are not GRAS are regarded as unapproved food additives, and their presence in food renders it adulterated (Anon., 2001).

Regulatory agencies

Department of Health and Human Services and ensures the safety and wholesomeness of all foods, except meat, poultry and some egg products, sold in the U.S. It conducts unannounced inspections and sampling of foods it obtains from food-processing facilities and monitors for unsafe levels of pesticides in foods. FDA develops standards on composition, quality, nutrition, and safety of foods and food additives. The FDA can have products seized (with a court injunction) or suggest that a product be recalled. Within the FDA is the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), which is directly responsible for ensuring that foods are safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled. For many years, the FDA played an advice-giving role to manufacturers in prescribing the type and design of tests to be performed. The FDA cataloged this information in their reference entitled Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color...

Us food laws

The original 1906 Food and Drugs Act contained two prohibitions only, which remain as part of the current law. The first forbids the marketing of a food containing any added poisonous or deleterious substance that may render it injurious to health. The second forbids the marketing of food containing nonadded toxicants that make them ordinarily injurious to health. The FDA had the burden of proving that a food was adulterated, and there was no required premarket approval. The act has been amended several times to improve the FDA's ability to ensure the safety of foods. The most important amendment was the 1958 Food Additives Amendment, for which additives had to be demonstrated as safe before marketing. However, the amendment excluded substances generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by scientific experts. There was, and still is, a distinction made between cancerous and all other toxic agents. For all other noncarcinogenic substances, regulators embraced standard safety assessment...

Other Lipids

Food scientists may occasionally have a need to examine minor food ingredients for example, mono- and diglycerides or even triglycerides by using GLC. The modern FFSC is very well suited to these requirements, but because higher temperatures are involved, only bonded liquid phases should be considered. Many examples of this type of analysis have been published (Ackman, 1986), and it is only necessary to select an appropriate commercially available column because the GLC units manufactured in the past decade should already meet requirements. It is probable that thick liquid-phase column coatings should be avoided to keep temperatures as low as possible. In particular, peak asymmetry can indicate either too low a temperature or column overload.

Amino Acids

Amino acids have a great variety of current and potential uses as food, pharmaceuticals, and animal feed. Their main application field is food, where about 50 of the product is applied (4). They can be used as nutritional supplements, flavor enhancers, sweeteners, and in pre-and postoperative nutrition therapy (5). This section will discuss using ME to produce some of these amino acids. Recent progress in this field can be divided into three categories (6) (1) modification of central metabolic pathways, (2) modification of biosynthetic pathways, and (3) modification of transport systems. Figures 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3 summarize some of the examples discussed below. Examples of bacteria that have been engineered for the production of food ingredients

Carbohydrates

(i.e., nondigestible food ingredients that provide specific nutrients to beneficial bacteria hosted in the colon). Among them are fructo-oligosacharides, galacto-oligosacharides, gluco-oligosacharides, transgalacto-oligosacharides, isomalto-oligosacharides and xylo-oligosacharides (50). LABs are a good source of nondigestible polysaccharides, mainly exopolysacharides (EPS), which are also recognized by their contribution to the texture, mouth feel, taste perception, and stability of the final food product (54). Based on the available genetic information on genes required for EPSs biosynthesis in LABs, heterologous production of EPSs has been achieved in a LAB strain that did not have the capacity to produce them (55). A similar experiment has shown that EPSs with different compositions can be produced from expression of the same cluster of genes due to either selectivity in the export and polymerization system or limitation in the supply of precursors (56). Van Kranenburg et al. (57)...

Detecting Mutations

Today the mutagenic potential of chemicals is considered in evaluating the mutagenic risks posed by chemical exposure. Many new methods have been developed to determine if chemicals to which people will be exposed, such as new drugs, food additives, and pesticides, are mutagens. Since mutations can occur in any organism, and because there are many different kinds of mutations, there are a correspondingly wide variety of tests to detect them. No one test detects them all.

Australia

Under the Australian Food Standards Code, Standard A1, compound ingredient provisions are detailed whereby, in common with the EC, if an ingredient contributes less than 250 g kg (25 ) of a food, food additives are the only components that must be declared. In contrast to EC law, unless specifically required, if an ingredient contributes less than 100 g kg (10 ) of a food, the components of the food need not be declared. However, the Standard does require that the presence of peanuts must always be declared in a food. Standard K2 on honey and related products requires that labels on or attached to pollen products must declare, in standard type of 3 mm, the statement 'THIS PRODUCT MAY CAUSE SEVERE ALLERGIC REACTIONS'. The same standard requires the following statement on packages containing royal jelly, or to foods containing royal jelly, immediately following the name of the food, in type of 3 mm 'THIS PRODUCT CONTAINS ROYAL JELLY, WHICH HAS BEEN REPORTED TO CAUSE SEVERE ALLERGIC...

United States

The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act requires, in virtually all cases, a complete ingredients listing on foods. Two exemptions to this are that spices, flavourings and colourings may be declared collectively under the Act, without each individual one having to be specifically named also, incidental additives, such as processing aids, that are present in foods at an insignificant level and do not have a technical or functional effect in the final food, need not be declared, under Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The FDA, in this Notice, stressed to manufacturers that the exemption applied only when the incidental additive is present at an insignificant level and it must not have any technological effect in the final product. An example is quoted of egg white as a binder in breading on a breaded fish product the egg white is not incidental as it is acting in the final food, so should be declared. Owing to the low levels of ingredients concerned with allergens, the FDA is...

Metabolism

Cost ratio between different chemical classes of natural flavoring substances and their natural identical correspondence (G. Feron, personal data, 2003). Cost ratio between different chemical classes of natural flavoring substances and their natural identical correspondence (G. Feron, personal data, 2003).

Ov1701 Ffap

Figure 12 Aroma impact compounds identified in a meaty savory food flavoring 3-methyl-2-furanthiol (no. 1), irans-2-methyl-3-tetrahydrofuranthiol (no. 2), 2-furfurylthiol (no. 3), methional (no. 4), 5-(2-methyl-3-furyl)-ethanethioate (no. 5), (no. 6), furaneol (no. 8), and sotolon (no. 9). Acetic acid (no. 7) is not shown. The numbering corresponds to that in Tables 7 through 9. Figure 12 Aroma impact compounds identified in a meaty savory food flavoring 3-methyl-2-furanthiol (no. 1), irans-2-methyl-3-tetrahydrofuranthiol (no. 2), 2-furfurylthiol (no. 3), methional (no. 4), 5-(2-methyl-3-furyl)-ethanethioate (no. 5), (no. 6), furaneol (no. 8), and sotolon (no. 9). Acetic acid (no. 7) is not shown. The numbering corresponds to that in Tables 7 through 9. Table 8 Odorants Identified on the Basis of AEDA in the Acidic Fraction (Sample D) of a Commercially Available Food Flavoring with Savory Character Table 8 Odorants Identified on the Basis of AEDA in the Acidic Fraction (Sample D) of a...

Coloring agents

The FDA certifies over 11.5 million pounds of color additives every year. Of all colors, straight dye FD& C Red No. 40 is by far the most popular. Manufacturers use this orange-red color in all sorts of gelatins, beverages, dairy products, and condiments. FDA certified more than 3 million pounds of the dye in fiscal year 1992, almost a million pounds more than the runner-up FD& C Yellow No. 5.

Other Applications

The worldwide approval of a large number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among countries, and the associated labeling requirements, has resulted in the development of real-time PCR-based methods for the detection of the presence of GMO in food or food additives. 29 Genetically modified organism detection through PCR relies on parallel amplification of the transgene and of an endogenous reference gene that provides a control both for the lack of inhibition and for the ability to amplify the target DNA in the sample. Additionally, for quantitative analyses, amplification of the reference gene provides an estimation of the total amount of target DNA present in the sample. Targeting the DNA is particularly appropriate, because of the high stability of this molecule under the extreme conditions used during processing of some food products.

Active packaging

Although absorbing oxygen and moisture or emitting carbon dioxide in a package can affect the growth of microorganisms, there are packaging schemes that are specifically designed to inhibit foodborne microorganisms. These fall mainly into two categories, packaging materials and edible films coatings that contain antimicrobial agents that interfere with microbial growth on the surface of the food (Cha and Chinnan, 2004). A variety of antimicrobials can be incorporated into packaging material or applied to the interior surface of the material, ranging from weak organic acids such as acetic, benzoic, lactic, propionic, and sorbic acids enzymes such as lysozyme bacteriocins such as nisin or pediocin triclosan chitosan and fungicides. The selection depends on the target organism and the food. Many of these same agents can be incorporated into edible coatings made from polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose, or gums. Proteins films are based on corn, soy, milk, collagen, and gluten while...

Red No

FDA has found no evidence to suggest any long-term serious health consequences from consuming MSG. It is possible that some people might be sensitive to MSG, as they are to many other foods and food ingredients. There are some reports that mild, temporary reactions to MSG may occur in a small portion of the population, based on tests with a large dose of MSG in the absence of food.

Thermolysis

In order to increase the availability of nutrients and to develop flavor notes, yeast used as food or feed is usually broken down. Three alternatives were investigated autolysis, autolysis-thermolysis, and thermolysis. Experiments were carried out to increase protein digestibility while minimizing available lysine and thiamin losses. The independent variables were temperature, pH, and time, and the dependent variables were protein digestibility, thiamin, and available lysine. Results are shown in Table 3.1. A two-step thermolysis was the best alternative to increase protein digestibility with no adverse effects on available lysine content and protein quality. The product has been used as a flavor enhancer additive and to produce chicken-like flavors.

Infant intervention

Various guidelines exist in the UK recommending delayed introduction of solids in infants at increased risk of atopy, and in the same at-risk group delaying the ingestion of peanut products until after three years of age (Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food 1998). On the basis of the studies presented, these guidelines do not appear to be evidence-based. Furthermore, the observation that 88 of egg reactions and 80 of peanut reactions occur after the first known exposure (Ford and Taylor 1982, Hourihane and Kilburn 1997) suggests that allergen avoidance is not straightforward and sensitisation may occur earlier in life and by other means, such as food contamination or inhaled sensitisation (Witteman 1995).

Food safety risks

In an examination of food safety issues and fresh food exports from less-developed countries, Unnevehr (2000) speculates that fresh food products have relatively higher food safety risks than other traded foods, such as bulk grains. The foundation for this theory is that fresh food products have more opportunities for food contamination because they are handled at all stages of the food production and marketing chain and are then consumed in their fresh form (Zepp et al., 1998 Unnevehr, 2000 Unnevehr and Hirschhorn, 2000). Meanwhile, processed or manufactured foods are less likely to deteriorate during shipping and handling and have more widely established and recognized standards (Unnevehr, 2000). However, the consistent use of such standards is less common in countries with lower levels of development. Better data and a more comprehensive analysis are needed to provide supporting evidence that fresh food products pose greater global food safety risks than bulk grains and processed...

Editors

Paliyath's current research is in the areas of post-harvest biology and technology, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. He is investigating the signal transduction events in response to ethylene and the role of phospholipase D in such events. Various aspects dealing with improvement in fruit and vegetable shelf life and quality, and the efficacy of functional food ingredients are also being investigated. Technologies and products have been developed for enhancing the shelf life and quality of fruits, vegetables, and flowers based on phospholipase D inhibition (US Patent 6,514,914). As well, he is

Medicinal Rutaceae

Western medicine has been using the essential oil of several species of Rutaceae as flavoring ingredient. The essential oil of C. sinensis (orange oil, Oleum aurantii, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) has been used as a flavoring agent and in perfumery. Berg-amot oil (Oleum bergamottae, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1949) from Citrus bergamia has been used in perfumery in preparations for the hair (cologne spirit or Spiritus coloniensis), lemon oil (Oleum limonis, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) from C. limon, Citrus limonia, and Citrus medica is carminative and used as a flavoring agent, and the dry peel of C. aurantium (Aurantii cortex siccatus, British Pharmacopoeia, 1963) has been used as a flavoring agent and for its bitter and carminative properties. The oil of Ruta graveolens L. (common rue, herb of grace) has been has been used to stop spasms, promote menses, and produce skin irritation (rue, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934).

Bacterial Toxins

Of the many different causes of foodborne diseases, bacteria are by far the most common. About half of all cases of diarrhea in the U.S. are of foodborne origin, and, according to the CDC, microbial diseases are on the rise. The reasons for the increase in foodborne illnesses are as follows. (1) There are better epidemiological capacities and better means to report cases, as well as better means to detect and identify foodborne illnesses. (2) Over the last few decades, people have made significant changes in their lifestyle and food consumption. They eat out more often, travel more, and choose exotic foods more often. Vegetables and fruits come from different countries, which sometimes have different sanitation standards and different strains of microbes. As a working society, we have gotten further away from food preparation and as such there is less emphasis on teaching about food preparation. At present, school curriculums rarely contain safety instructions for preparing food,...

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