Mushroom Production

Mushrooms have entered the new era of food technology as a common universally accepted nutritive food. Their commercial cultivation involving SSF has rapidly spread globally, due to their innumerable applications. They are a rich source of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals (2,19). Folic acid content in mushrooms has been found to be higher than in liver and spinach. In addition to their nutritive value, mushrooms also possess medicinal properties (1,2,19,20,127-129). They...

History

The first recorded attempt at plant tissue culture was in 1902, when Haberlandt (2) placed epidermal, pith parenchyma, and palisade cells of monocotyledons in culture containing various sugars, inorganic salts, and amino acids. None of the cells divided. The first successful attempt at tissue culture was recorded in 1904, when Hannig (3), using similar media, was able to grow whole plants from embryos. During the next two decades, work centered on improving embryo culture techniques. It was...

Fruit Extracts

In past years, a considerable interest has been shown in using agricultural products such as dates, carob pods, and figs for the production of citric acid by A. niger (27,86,105107,206,207). Date syrup is produced from dates by boiling the dates in water, filtering the solution, and concentrating the filtrate under vacuum. The extract of the date syrup contains large amounts of heavy metals which are removed by treatment of syrup with cation exchange resin, sulfuric acid, tricalcium phosphate,...

Vinas Sabu Production

Solid-substrate fermentations. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 28 201-237, 1982. Aidoo, K.E., R. Hendry, B.J.B. Wood. Mechanized fermentation systems for the production of experimental soy sauce koji. J. Food Technol. 19 389-398, 1984. Soccol, C.R. Biotechnology products from cassava root by solid-state fermentation. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 55 358-364, 1996. Banerjee, R., A. Pandey. Bioindustrial applications of sugarcane bagasse a technological perspective. Int. Sugar J....

References

Salzburn. Production of citric acid according to the submerged fermentation process. Process. Biochem. October November 9-11, 1981. 2. Smith, J.E., A. Nowakowska-Waszczuk, J.G. Anderdson. Organic acid production by mycelial fungi. Ind. Aspects Biochem. 297-317, 1974. 3. Kapoor, K.K., K. Chaudhary, P. Tauro. Citric acid. In Prescott and Dunn's Industrial Microbiology, Reed, G., ed UK MacMillan Publishers Ltd, 1983, pp 709-747. 4. Johnson, M.V. The citric acid...

Editorial Advisory Board

Barbosa-C novas Washington State University-Pullman P. Michael Davidson University of Tennessee-Knoxville Mark Dreher McNeil Nutritionals, New Brunswick, NJ Richard W. Hartel University of Wisconsin-Madison Lekh R. Juneja Taiyo Kagaku Company, Japan Marcus Karel Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ronald G. Labbe University of Massachusetts-Amherst Daryl B. Lund University of Wisconsin-Madison David B. Min The Ohio State University Leo M. L. Nollet Hogeschool Gent, Belgium Seppo...

Section 2 Plant And Animal Food Applications And Functional Foods

Chapter 2.01 Methods in Plant Tissue Culture Hector G. Nunez-Palenius, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Harry H. Klee, Neftali Ochoa-Alejo, Rafael Ramirez-Malagon, and Eugenio Perez-Molphe Chapter 2.02 Clonal Screening and Sprout Based Bioprocessing of Phenolic Phytochemicals for Functional Foods Kalidas Shetty, Fergus M. Clydesdale, and Dhiraj A. Vattem Chapter 2.03 Genomic Basics for Food Improvement Gabriela Olmedo, Socorro Parra, and Plinio Guzman Chapter 2.04 Molecular Design of Soybean Proteins for...

Historical Perspectives

Algae have been long recognized as a heterogeneous group of organisms, ranging from pro-karyotic blue greens to distantly related eukaryotic lines. Their growth modes range from phototrophy through photoheterotrophy to heterotrophy. Each growth mode in turn can be either obligate or facultative (1). The genetic diversity of microalgae is evident still further in their ecological diversity and ubiquitous distribution. Different species can grow in water ranging from fresh water to hypersaline...

Overproduction Of Essential Nutrients

Human diets are often deficient in amino acids, vitamins, and other substances with high nutritional value. This is especially evident in certain geographic areas and for certain sectors of the population (198). On the other hand, today's lifestyle in developed countries, consumption patterns are evolving dramatically, making it more difficult to maintain a proper diet. In this scenario, bread is considered a good vector to convey effectively the kind of health benefits consumers look for,...

Editors

Kalidas Shetty is a professor of food biotechnology in the Department of Food Science at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. He received his BS degree from the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, majoring in applied microbiology, and MS and PhD from the University of Idaho, Moscow in microbiology. He then pursued postdoctoral studies in plant biotechnology in Japan (National Institute of Agro-Biological Sciences, Tsukuba Science City) and Canada (University of...

Asepsis In Fermentation Process

Asepsis in biotechnology means freedom from unwanted microorganisms, just as in clinical medicine it means freedom from pathogenic microorganisms (179). However, there do exist many fermentation industries e.g., ethanol, baker's yeast, and vinegar, where asepsis is not a matter of concern. Economic considerations suggest that a contamination probability of 1 in 100 is acceptable for batch fermentations, considering a contamination probability of 1 in 1000 taken into design calculations for a...

Info

Figure 17.1 The course of lipid accumulation by a typical oleaginous microorganism. The concentration of nitrogen (usually NH3) in the medium is adjusted in the initial formulation so that it becomes exhausted after about the first 24 to 36 hours' growth. In most cases, though not in every one, the accumulation of lipid in an oleaginous species of microorganism follows a similar pattern (Figure 17.1). In essence, the microorganism of choice is grown in a culture medium that is high in carbon...

Natural Occurrence Of Microbial Polysaccharides In Foods

9.2.1 Microbial Polysaccharides Present in Food as Products of Microbial Food Components A number of the microorganisms that are used in the preparation of foodstuffs are capable of synthesizing extracellular polysaccharides. This is especially true of the lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus spp.), and a number of structural studies have recently elucidated the nature of some of these polysaccharides. These and other reports can be found in the reviews of De Vuyst...

Summary And Future Prospects

Forms of algae have been used from time immemorial as an alternative source of food. Several civilizations have adopted this efficiently, and developed recipes, which helped human beings in meeting the nutritional needs for their wellbeing. Algae were often used as a famine food by virtue of its availability under drought conditions. Persistent consumption from generation to generation established the safety of such algal food materials. The need for ensuring nutritional security has lead to...

Production Of Exopolysaccharides

SSF use in the production of exopolysaccharides such as xanthan and succinoglycan is growing. Xanthan is nontoxic and does not inhibit growth. It is nonsensitizing and does not cause skin or eye irritation. On this basis, xanthan has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive without any specific quantity limitations (131). Xanthan gum has been used in a wide variety of foods for a number of important reasons, including emulsion...

Microbial Polysaccharides Incorporated As Food Additives

In the US, polysaccharides which are to be used as food additives are subject to Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) regulations and must be approved by the USDA. Currently only two microbial polysaccharide products have such approval - xanthan and gellan, although curdlan may also be under evaluation. Previously dextran was also an approved food additive, but it is not currently used in food manufacture. In Japan, a wider view is taken and microbial EPS are regarded as natural products. One thus...

Perspectives

In the past few years, recombinant DNA technology has led to the appearance of new baker's yeast strains with optimized or novel properties, and it is expected that this tool will produce in the near future a huge spectrum of specialized yeasts of high added value. Their introduction in the manufacturing market will produce a dramatic change in formulation, ingredients, or processing conditions currently used in the baking practice, and will provide new end products with enhanced flavor,...

Genetics Of Clostridium Beijerinckii

The hyper-amylolytic C. beijerinckii BA101 mutant was generated using N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine MNNG , together with selective enrichment on the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose 14 . Amylolytic enzyme production by C. beijerinckii BA101 was 1.8- and 2.5-fold higher than that of the parent strain grown in starch and glucose, respectively. Dramatically elevated levels of butanol and acetone resulted in higher butanol and total solvent yields for hyper-amylolytic C....

Macromolecules and Basic Cellular Chemistry

Macromolecules are composed of units that have structural polarity. As such, these molecules are not symmetrical, but rather have ends that are structurally different a head and a tail . Some molecules may have a positively-charged end and a negatively-charged end. Structural polarity gives a macromolecule a sense of direction or orientation. Because of this directional nature of their structure, biological macromolecule subunits have the capacity to specify information in their arrangement....

Fermentation In Food Biotechnology

Fermentation is an important part of our lives. The relevance of fermentation to day to day life is evident from the fact that food can be both spoiled and made by fermentation. Many of the foods used for human consumption are fermented foods. Fermentation is one of the oldest techniques used for food preservation. Muscle cells use fermentation to provide energy for a quick response. The oldest food biotechnological processes include the baking of yeast leavened breads, brewing of beer, sake...

Bioreactor Configurations 341 Submerged Fermentor Systems

Airlift Submerged Bioreactor

The fermentor is the heart of any biochemical process in which microbial, mammalian, or plant cell systems are employed for the economic production of fermentation products. A properly designed fermentor should be used to provide an aseptic, controlled environment to facilitate optimal growth and product formation of a particular cell system. In view of the broad scope of the fermentor for cultivation of microbial, mammalian, or plant cells, it is more commonly referred to as a bioreactor this...

Safety Of Single Cell Oils

The arrival of SCO on the food scene is a relatively recent event - the first commercial SCO Oil of Javanicus not being produced commercially until 1985 see Section 17.3.2.2.1 - well after regulations and regulatory bodies relating to food safety were in place. Therefore the safety of these food products had to be determined and proven to the regulatory authorities and the general public. The safety of Oil of Javanicus was relatively easy to confirm as both the producing organism Mucor...

Genetic Engineering Technology For Yeast

Genereplacement Yeast

The discovery over two decades ago that yeast could be transformed as easily as bacteria, allowing stable modification of the genome, revolutionized the genetic analysis of Saccharomyces. It was then possible to isolate any gene of interest in the test tube and transfer the wild type or mutated allele to yeast. A second important discovery was the ease with which yeast genes could be disrupted, allowing mutations to be made at any known locus. As a consequence, any chromosomal allele could be...

Algae Based Industrial Products Of Food Processing

Seaweeds have been commercially exploited for hydrocolloids since 1658, when the gelling properties of agar, extracted with hot water from red seaweed, were first discovered in Japan. Various red and brown seaweeds are used to produce three hydrocolloids, namely agar, alginate, and carrageenan Table 19.10 . A hydrocolloid is a noncrystalline substance with very large molecules which dissolves in water to give a thickened viscous solution. Industrial uses of seaweed extracts expanded rapidly...