Cure Eye Floaters Naturally

Eye Floaters No More

Daniel Brown created Eye Floaters No More Program with the main aim of helping people get lid of those stressful and annoying eye floaters. Daniel is a professional medical researcher and was once affected by these annoying and stressful eye floaters. Because of this, he spent a significant amount of his time researching and writing about their natural cure. The program is packed with a lot of interesting and helpful information that will help you along the way. The book also features some of the best bonuses that you can get immediately you purchase it which includes Vision without glasses and Stress no more. Eye floaters no more is a very helpful eBook for those people that wants to get rid of the annoying eye floaters at the comfort of their homes. You will at the same time get bonuses that will help you deal with and manage stress. Upon purchase, you will get a complete program in form of an eBook. You will also get another two bonuses in form of downloadable eBook. This program contains information that can help people deal with eye floaters regardless of their age, social status and race. Read more here...

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Age Related Macular Degeneration

Submacular Hemorrhage Oct

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a chronic degenerative disease that affects primarily the choriocapillaris, Bruch's membrane, and the RPE. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States and Europe, and the incidence of AMD in Japan has been increasing during the past 20 years. AMD is classified into two types dry and exudative. The exudative form, also called disciform macular degeneration, is characterized by the development of choroidal neovascularization, which causes serous and hemorrhagic detachment of the retina, resulting in poor central vision. The ophthalmoscopic appearance of AMD is shown in Fig. 4.29. Some AMD is treatable with laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, or Fig. 4.29. Fundus photograph (A), OCT image (B), fluorescein angiogram (C, D each left), and indocyanine green angiogram (C, D each right) of early-phase (C) and late-phase (D) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) obtained from a 62-year-old man. Present are...

Locationspecific Mapping Strategies

The anatomic pattern of disorders of the retina is guided by what one sees on fundoscopy and the type of pathology. Macular diseases such as central serous retinopathy, macular degeneration, and cone dystrophies mandate careful testing of the central 20 , mainly with suprathreshold methods, and it is probably best done by automated perimetry. Retinitis pigmentosa redirects one to the

Pathomechanism of diabetic retinopathy

In the eye of a healthy person endothelial cells are mitotically inactive thanks to pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors remaining in balance. Healthy organism maintains perfect equilibrium between angiogenesis modulators (Carmeliet, 2003 Kvanta, 2006). However in the case of hypoxia or inflammation this balance may be shifted towards neoangiogenesis (Kvanta, 2006 Campa et al., 2010). Eye angiogenesis is a complicated multistage process in which new vessels are created from existing ones (Kvanta, 2006 Curtis et al., 2009). This usually leads to significant loss of vision in patients with type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes (Rosenson et al., 2011 Durham & Herman, 2011). Results of studies conducted within last ten years proved that eye angiogenesis may involve choroid, cornea as well as retina (Kvanta, 2006 Caporali & Emanueli, 2011). During retinal angiogenesis newly formed vessels grow into vitreous where they may break and cause haemorrhage or retinal detachment. Fig. 1-3 shows...

Retinal and Choroidal Detachment

Retinal detachment is separation of the sensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) (Fig. 3.15). The ERG cannot be recorded when the retinal detachment is complete. Therefore in cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments, the reduction of the ERG amplitude corresponds roughly to the extent of retinal detachment (Fig. 3.16). proven that in normal subjects the amplitudes in the two eyes are not significantly different when tested simultaneously 3 . It is possible, therefore, to use a relative value (i.e., the percentage of the affected eye fellow eye), as an assay for RPE disease provided the fellow eye is sound. It should be stressed that this is probably a more accurate and sensitive indicator of a deviation from normal. With rhegmatogenous retinal detachments, the L D ratio is low but the base value remains normal 3 (Fig. 3.17). Choroidal detachment is separation of the choroid from the sclera, which results from accumulation of clear fluid or blood within and under the...

Peripheral Schisis Without Foveoschisis

Retina Schisis

As mentioned above, foveoschisis or nonspecific macular degeneration is always present in patients with XLRS. We have studied one patient who had a peripheral schisis with normal maculas. This 15-year-old boy had visual acuity of 1.0 in both eyes also visual field defects in both eyes. His maternal brother was reported to have poor visual acuity but was not available for examination. A peripheral schisis with inner retinal breaks in the inferior retina was present in both fundi, but ophthalmoscopy

Evaluation of Eyelid Malpositions

Basal Cell Carcinoma Eyelid

A history of previous eye surgery is important. Eyelid malpositions are not uncommon sequelae of retinal detachment surgery, strabismus surgery or cataract extraction. Ptosis is reported to occur following cataract surgery in 7-8 of cases. Other surgery, especially intracranial or thoracic procedures, may result in central third nerve palsy or Horner's syndrome respectively.

Idiopathic Epimacular Membranes

Epimacular membranes (Fig. 4.13) can be caused by trauma, inflammation, retinal vascular disease, and retinal detachment surgery. We have studied the focal macular ERGs of patients with unilateral idiopathic epimacular membrane (IEM) to determine how the altered retinal function correlates with visual acuity and OCT images 1, 2 . We found that the changes in the focal macular ERG while the macula was altered and after recovery of the macula closely resemble those seen in the presence of aphakic (pseudophakic) CME (see Section 4.2).

General pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy

In non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, increased vascular permeability and retinal ischemia secondary to retinal capillary drop-out are two major patho-physiologic processes. Proliferation of new vessels and or fibrous tissue is the hallmark of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Unlike to normal retinal vessels, newly formed vessels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy are leaky due to the presence of endothelial fenestrae and incompetency of junctions (Wallow & Geldner, 1980 Williams et al., 1988) and usually accompany fibrous proliferation. These features of new vessels are responsible for the aggravation of retinal edema and development of retinal and or vitreous hemorrhage in PDR patients. Moreover, a contraction of posterior vitreous surface which are adherent to the fibrovascular membrane usually results in the traction retinal detachment. In this chapter, we further discuss about the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy in an aspect of blood-retinal barrier dysfunction.

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

The main objective in treating a tear or hole is to prevent a retinal detachment. Photocoagulation, cryotherapy, and diathermy are used to produce an inflammatory response that creates an adhesion or scar, which seals the edges of the tear. These therapies differ in the mechanism used to cause the scarring effect. Photocoagulation uses light beams cryotherapy uses cold to freeze the tissues diathermy uses energy from a high-frequency current. All three result in sealing of the hole to prevent the vitreous from spilling between the layers. Preoperatively, the patient is on bedrest and has activity restrictions, depending on the size and location of detachment. Total eye rest may be needed. The patient may not read, watch television, or participate in any activity that causes rapid eye movements. An eye patch may be prescribed. It is important to position the patient either to keep the retinal tear lowermost within the eye or in the dependent position to allow the retina to fall back...

Full Field Electroretinograms

Imagenes Redes Antropologicas

The LED-contact lens electrode has been found to be highly suitable for this purpose 23 . The LED-contact lens is easily sterilized and is used as both a stimulus source and a recording electrode for 30-Hz flicker ERGs during vitreoretinal surgery (Fig. 1.7). Each recording requires approximately 7 s. The changes in the ERGs during surgery in a patient with a shallow retinal detachment in the macular region, associated with a macular pucker, are shown in Fig. 1.8. The operation was performed with the

Involvement of Factor H in Human Disease

Mutations and polymorphisms that lead to amino-acid residue substitutions (or a deletion in one case) within CFH have been linked to several human diseases, including atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and membranoproliferative glomulonephritis type II (MPGNII also known as dense deposit disease) (de Cordoba and de Jorge 2008). More tentatively and controversially the AMD-linked Y402H SNP (see below) has been linked to an altered risk of three other late-onset conditions - myocardial infarction (Kardys et al. 2006 Mooijaart et al. 2007 Nicaud et al. 2007 Pai et al. 2007 Stark et al. 2007), CAD CHD (Meng et al. 2007 Pulido et al. 2007 Topol et al. 2006) and Alzheimer's Disease (Hamilton et al. 2007 Zetterberg et al. 2007). Age-related macular degeneration is characterized by a progressive loss of central vision attributable to degenerative and, in advanced cases, neovascular changes in the macula, a highly specialized region of the...

Focal grid laser photocoagulation

Focal Grid Laser

Although focal laser photocoagulation reduces the risk of moderate visual loss by approximately 50 , approximately 12 of treated eyes still lose vision, many because of persistent DME (ETDRS group, 1985). Kim et al. assessed macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of DME patients to determine whether specific OCT patterns are predictive of visual outcome after focal laser photocoagulation (Kim et al., 2009). DME was classified into four different OCT patterns, which are diffuse retinal thickening, cystoids macular edema, serous retinal detachment, and vitreomacular interface abnormalities (Figure 1). In this study, eyes with diffuse retinal thickening achieved a greater visual acuity increase than eyes with other patterns. Fig. 1. Different patterns of diabetic macular edema by optical coherence tomography. (A) Diffuse retinal thickening appears as a sponge-like retinal swelling with areas of reduced intraretinal reflectivity. (B) Cystoid macular edema showing intraretinal...

OCT interpretation qualitative analysis morphology and reflectivity

While performing qualitative analysis one should simultaneously perform morphological examination (changes in retinal profile - surface and posterior layers, and presence of abnormal structures) and reflectivity examination (hyper-reflectivity, hypo-reflectivity, and shadowing effects) (Brancato & Lumbroso, 2004). Pathological changes in retinal surface contour may represent disappearance of the normal foveal depression (in macular edema). Steepening of the foveal contour may be associated with epiretinal membranes, macular pseudoholes or lamellar holes. OCT can distinguish between lamellar holes, pseudoholes or various stages of full thickness macular holes. Pathological changes in posterior layers may be RPE detachments (form steep angles with the choriocapillaris) and neurosensory retinal detachments (form shallow angles with the RPE and protrude less). Retinal drusen produce wavy undulations of the pigment epithelium line. Abnormal intraretinal structures may be cotton wool spots...

Beneficial Effects of High Carotenoid Nutrition

Finally some results of the so-called Bruneck study shall be mentioned and cited. The aim of that study was to assess a relationship between plasma concentrations of important carotinoids such as a-carotene, p-carotene, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin, p-cryptoxanthin, and the vitamins A and E, and the degree of atherosclerosis in the carotid and femoral arteries 36 . This prospective and cross sectional study involved a randomly selected population sample of 392 men and women aged 45 to 65 years. a-Carotene and p-carotene plasma levels were inversely associated with the prevalence of atherosclerosis in the carotid and femoral arteries (p 0.004) and with the five-year incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries (p 0.04). These findings were obtained after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors such as sex, age, LDL, ferritin, systolic blood pressure, smoking, categories of alcohol consumption, social status, C-reactive protein. Atherosclerosis risk gradually...

Supplementation of Carotenoids for Prevention and Treatment

Sume carotenoid containing supplements every day. The aim of such supplementation should be to use the protective functions of carotenoids against the development of macular degeneration, cardiovascular diseases, irradiation induced skin aging, and cancer. Even many people followed the change from the principle An apple a day keeps the doctor away in Five servings a day keep the doctor away and use at least five servings of fruit and vegetables, billions of other people and also of those using lots of fruits and vegetables additionally take supplements with p-carotene or retinol or lycopene or other carote-noids 1 . The supplements as nutraceuticals are combinations of different compounds or single compounds. It is always written on the packages how many percentages of the recommended daily amount (RDA) the intake of one tablet or capsule will cover. With high probability billion of people take in supplements with beneficial effects for their health conditions. Nevertheless,...

Toxicants in foods and their effects on nutrition

With the exception of vitamin D, vitamin A, and some minerals, the intake of nutrients from natural food sources will not pose any significant health problems. However, one can argue that the health problems associated with high intakes of protein, fats, or energy are really manifestations of nutrient toxicity, i.e., cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and eye diseases such as macular degeneration and other chronic diseases. The other potential means whereby nutrient intakes can present health problems is the abuse of nutrient supplementation. A nonfood source of a nutrient can produce pharmacological actions at concentrations well above normal dietary amounts.

How the Environment Is Involved in Complex Disease

Genes are not the only things that can affect a complex trait. Often environmental factors can also be involved. The type of environmental factors can be very different for different traits. One obvious example of this is lung cancer. Smoking cigarettes greatly increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Smoking also seems to have an effect on other diseases, including some eye diseases (such as age-related macular degeneration). However, not every chronic smoker will develop lung cancer or eye disease The presence of particular alleles of susceptibility genes is also a risk factor, as discussed below.

Clinical Features

Haas 4 provided the first clinical description of the disease in 1898. The phenotype of RS and its variability have been described by several authors. 5-8 The predominant phenotype includes foveal and peripheral retinoschisis and vitreous veils of partial retinal layers in the vitreous. Fundus examination may show the Mizuo phenomenon, an inner retinal sheen that occurs with the onset of light exposure after a period of dark adaptation. 9 An area of schisis may leave a retinal vessel unsupported in the vitreous cavity, called a ''congenital vascular veil.'' Affected males are identified between 5 and 10 years of age with poor visual acuity, typically 20 60-20 120. 10 A small number of patients present in infancy with bilateral bullous retinal detach-ment. 11 Visual impairment may be stable until age 50-60 when macular atrophy results in further central vision loss. 5,10 Acute sight threatening complications such as retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage occur in 10 and 5 of...

Surgical Retinal Procedures

K retinal detachment occurs when the retina is pulled away from or out of its normal position. Approximately 5 of the U.S. population has retinal breaks, but most do not lead to retinal detachment, which has a prevalence of 0.3 . Estimates are that 15 of people with retinal detachments in one eye develop detachment in the other eye, and the risk of bilateral detachment increases to 30 in people who have had bilateral cataract surgery. 816 Retinal Detachment optic nerve and at the ciliary body. The remaining retina relies on the vitreous (jelly-like mass that fills the cavity of the eyeball) to apply pressure against the lining to maintain its position. The detachment can occur spontaneously as a result of a change in the retina or vitreous this detachment is referred to as a primary detachment. Secondary detachment occurs as a result of another problem, such as trauma, diabetes, or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Complications from retinal detachment include visual impairment and...

OCT classification of DME

The first OCT-classification of DME (Otani et al., 1999) is based on retinal morphological changes sponge-like swelling , cystoid edema, and serous retinal detachment. Other published classifications are presented by several authors (Kang et al., 2004 Kim et al., 2006 Panozzo et al., 2004). We propose and use in our clinical practice a classification, which summarizes several quantitative and qualitative OCT data retinal thickness, retinal morphology, retinal topography, macular traction and foveal photoreceptor status. It is based on published data by previous authors and our clinical observations and studies.

Hyperlipidaemia

The major sources of fatty acids lipids are from the modern diets (Western in particular) that have a high fat content Hu FB, 2001 . Not only these diets have high caloric content, but also have high levels of saturated and trans-fatty acids (SFA), rather than the generally beneficial cis-monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus understanding the details of metabolic response of diabetic mice to Western diets may aid in understanding, how dietary lipid fatty acids contribute to the complication of diabetes. The sensitivity of retina to fatty acid is well documented and thus understanding how diet affects the levels of these key metabolites will provide important new information about their role in DR Giovanni JP, 2005 Adibhatla RM, 2007 . Very long chain unsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) are essential for retinal development and function, and free fatty acids in this class have been shown to be protective against age related macular degeneration...

Discussion

Pathology Age-related macular degeneration, late atrophic form. Confrontation testing was normal OU, but tangent screen perimetry showed small areas of haze centrally OU. The patient has central defects OU, larger OS, where the defect extends to the blind spot. Bilateral central defects can occur at any level of the visual system. The incongruity and lack of a step at the vertical meridian are against bilateral occipital lesions. Instead, bilateral optic neuropathy (see Case 38) or bilateral maculopathy are most likely. Fun-doscopy showed macular pigmentary changes, making the diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration. Age-related macular degeneration causes progressive loss of acuity, central holes in vision, and metamorphopsia, or distorted vision, caused by fluid and scarring in the retina (1). This latter complaint is best shown on Amsler grid. These central defects impair the fine spatial resolution needed for tasks such as reading, face recognition, and driving, although...

AntiVEGF agents

Since the VEGF levels increase as DR progresses (Adamis et al., 1994 Aiello et al., 1994 Amin et al., 1997 Lutty et al., 1996), VEGF is very important in the development and progression of DR. VEGF is also a vascular permeability factor and plays an important role in the development of diabetic macular edema (DME) (Mathews et al., 1997). Based on these observations, several anti-VEGF agents such as an anti-VEGF antibody (Adamis et al., 1996), soluble VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins (Aiello et al., 1995), and antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides against VEGF (Robinson et al., 1996) have been tested in an animal model of retinal neovascularization mimicking DR. The results were very promising. Based on these favorable results in animal studies, several clinical studies have been undertaken to evaluate treatment of DME using an anti-VEGF antibody. The RESOLVE Study evaluated the safety and efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco,...

Chorioretinopathy

With central serous chorioretinopathy, it is conceivable that the macular photoreceptors are damaged because of the sensory retinal detachment. Therefore, this disease may be considered a model of macular photoreceptor damage. Indeed, it has been shown that all the components of focal macular ERGs have reduced amplitude and delayed implicit time, indicating photoreceptor damage. However, it is interesting that the data indicate that the inner retinal layers were also damaged, and their recovery was delayed after the subretinal fluid was resorbed.

Nevus Flammeus

Port Wine Stain Eyelid

CLINICAL PRESENTATION Nevus flammeus presents as a flat purple or deep red vascular lesion that can vary from only a few millimeters in size to those covering vary large areas. On the face it is usually unilateral and in the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. Unlike other congenital eyelid vascular lesions it does not undergo spontaneous regression. In older adults nevus flammeus can undergo cavernous changes making them elevated and rather prominent. Pyogenic granuloma may arise within a nevus flammeus without any predisposing factors, as can rare cases of basal cell carcinoma. In the presence of Sturge-Weber syndrome associated ocular manifestations include diffuse choroidal hemangioma, ipsilateral glaucoma, and serous retinal detachment. Cases of acquired nevus flammeus have been described following trauma.

Focal Macular ERGs

To characterize focal macular ERGs from patients with XLRS, we have divided the patients into two groups 10 . Group 1 includes those who have foveoschisis with little or no change in their foveal fluorescein angiograms, and group 2 includes those with advanced macular changes with nonspecific macular degeneration.

Fundus Findings

Varies considerably, as shown in Fig. 2.32. The cystic appearance of the macula may change to nonspecific macular degeneration (Fig. 2.32A), and fluorescein angiography may show hyperfluorescence due to window defects in the RPE (Fig. 2.32B). Extensive pigmentary changes of the retina (Fig. 2.32C) may be present, sometimes associated with sheathing of the vessels and abnormal appearance of the optic disks (Fig. 2.32D). Fluorescein angiography shows extensive RPE degeneration (Fig. 2.32E), and closure of retinal vessels may be seen resulting in avascular zones (Fig. 2.32F,G) with new vessel formation (Fig. 2.32H,I). Some patients have a retinal detachment associated with outer retinal breaks and vitreous hemorrhage. All of these changes make the correct diagnosis difficult. Fig. 2.32. Atypical findings of XLRS. A Nonspecific macular degeneration. B Window defect of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in a fluorescein angiogram.C Extensive pigments in the fundus.D Retinal degeneration...

Mucormycosis

Mucormycosis Differential Diagnosis

CLINICAL PRESENTATION Orbital involvement is seen in 80 of patients with mucormycosis, and 11 will progress to cavernous sinus thrombosis. Patients usually present with impaired ocular movement, loss of vision, proptosis, chemosis, and periorbital cellulitis. An orbital apex syndrome with blindness and total ophthalmoplegia may be seen. Serous retinal detachment may result from inflammation of the sclera. Rare cases of fungal enophthalmitis result from angioinvasion by fungal hyphae. With eyelid involvement cutaneous lesions may appear as large necrotic and ulcerating lesions with erythematous borders, and oozing black pus. Sinusitis and nasal discharge occur and nasal exam reveals a thick, dark blood-tinged discharge and reddish black necrotic eschar on the turbinates and septum. Cerebral involvement and hemiparesis can be seen in 15 to 20 of cases. Major systemic signs and symptoms include lethargy and headache.

Carotenoids

The commercial demand for carotenoids is mainly met by chemical synthesis and, to a minor extent, by extraction from natural sources or microbial fermentation (Sandmann et al., 1999 Shewmaker et al., 1999 Sandmann, 2001). Moreover, although a wide range of natural carotenoid derivatives is known to date, most of these are biosynthetic intermediates that accumulate only in trace amounts, making it very difficult to extract sufficient material for purification (Albrecht et al., 2000). Some important dietary carotenoids are not abundant in the human diet. Zeaxantin, for instance, is a rare caro-tenoid, which together with lutein is the essential component of the macular pigment in the eye (Delgado-Vargas et al., 2000 Van den Berg et al., 2000). Low levels of intake increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Marigold extracts from Tagetes erecta or the dried flowers themselves are well known as supplements for chicken feed to color the eggs and the chicken skin (Delgado-Vargas...

Vitrectomy

The vitreous has been implicated as a cause of macular edema in people with diabetes via several mechanical and physiologic mechanisms, all of which are postulated to lead to increased vascular permeability. Widespread or diffuse DME that is unresponsive to focal laser treatment may benefit from a vitrectomy. The presence of vitreous traction and macular edema, now readily documented with OCT, in association with visual impairment is also a common indication for the need of a vitrectomy. Complications of vitrectomy include recurrent vitreous hemorrhage, retinal tears and detachment, cataract formation and glaucoma (Figueroa et al., 2008 Harbour et al., 1996 Hartley et al., 2008 Ikeda et al., 1999 Lewis et al., 1992 Pendergast et al., 2000 Tachi & Ogino, 1996 Yamamoto et al., 2001).

Conclusions

The complement system is an important part of the innate immunity. In the normal eye, the complement system is continuously activated at low levels, and both membrane-bound and soluble intraocular complement regulatory proteins tightly regulate this spontaneous complement activation. This allows for destruction of the pathogens without induction of intraocular inflammation and vision loss. However, if control of complement activation is lost, intraocular inflammation occurs. Complement system and complement regulatory proteins control the intraocular inflammation in autoimmune anterior uveitis and play an important role in the development of corneal inflammation and age-related macular degeneration. Furthermore, the presence of a complement activation product, iC3b,

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