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Orange Water Phase

For botanical name and origin see orange oil.

Production: Sensory Evaluation:

Physical Data: Chemical Data:

During the concentration of orange juice (see 3.2.2.1).

This matrix features a typical orange pulp note and can be described with the attributes juicy, fruity, estery, green, floral, weakly sulphurous.

The total aroma content (excluding the components previously listed) usually corresponds to values in the range of 300-500 ppm.

The following compounds make up the aroma profile (the values quoted in parenthesis correspond to ppm values): linalool (45-80); a-terpineol (15-30); (Z)-3-hexenal (1050); ethyl butyrate (10-30); acetaldehyd diethylacetal (10-

50); ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate (10-20); hexanal (8-20); (E)-2-hexenal (5-20); octanol (5-20); octanal (5-10).

Quantitative differences result from different production technologies. Origin from different growing areas is not known to affect the composition of this matrix [99].

The flavouring of reconstituted orange juices is the most important field of application for these aqueous orange essences.

Continuous storage at freezing temperatures is necessary to prevent bacterial destruction and off-flavour formation, processes which easily develop in this highly diluted and acidic medium.

Petitgrain Oils [100, 101]

Petitgrain oils are obtained by steam distillation from the leaves and small twigs of citrus plants. As a result of their sweet, flowery and refreshing character, mainly the Petitgrain oils of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium ssp. amara L.) [100, 102-105] are of commercial interest. The main growing areas are Paraguay, Spain and Italy. The main constituents of bitter orange Petitgrain oil are linalyl acetate (up to 60%) and linalool (17-30%). Terpenes, sesquiterpenes and aldehydes play a minor role.

The Petitgrain oils of the citrus varieties mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) are also commercially available, but to a far lesser extent than for bitter orange. Mandarin Petitgrain oil is characterised by its unique sensory impact, which apart from y-terpinene (20-25%) results from its high content of methyl N-methylanthranilate (40-50%) [106-108].

On a commercial basis, lemon Petitgrain oil is produced from citrus leaves in Italy. In contrast to other Petitgrain oils, its composition resembles more to the peel oil of the corresponding fruits. The main constituents are limonene (app. 30%), p-pinene (1020%) and citral (15-28%) [104, 109-114].

The Petitgrain oils of the citrus varieties grapefruit [115], tangerine [116], lime [111] and sweet orange [117, 118] are of minor sensory interest and, therefore, only produced on a limited commercial scale.

Table 3.24: Main constituents of Petitgrain oils

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