Natural Flavouring Substances Manufactured by Physical Processes

Physical processes (see chapter 2) for isolation of natural flavouring substances include distillation, solvent extraction (including supercritical carbon dioxide), and chromatography. Major sources are essential oils. These may be derived from various parts of aromatic plants such as fruits (e.g. citrus, fennel), fruit parts (e.g. mace), flowers (e.g. safflower), flower parts (e.g. saffron), flower buds (e.g. clove), bulbs (e.g. onion), barks (e.g. cinnamon), leaves (e.g. basil), leaves and...

Supercritical Fluid Extraction SFE

Extraction and separation processes are basic industrial operations applied in many areas with considerable economic relevance. Supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, are of increasing interest for new separation processes in the fields of foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. To take away the mystery from the word supercritical, it should be recognized that a supercritical fluid can be used like any other solvent for maceration and percolation processes. The only restriction is...

Nature Identical and Artificial Flavouring Substances

Since ancient times the delicious taste and aroma of foods, herbs, spices and essential oils have been inspiring human beings in different cultures, geographical locations and ages 1 . Over thousands of years people have developed a wealth of recipes, techniques and technologies for food preparations, mainly driven by flavour, comprising aroma, taste, texture, viscosity, temperature as well as cooling, tingling and pungency 2 . Starting from distillation and extraction in the world of ancient...

Juice Extraction

The fruit is directed to suitable fruit extracting systems for juice recovery. In the case of citrus juices two of the best known juice extractors were mentioned above. While squeezing citrus fruit, undesirable peel oil can easily get into the juice. To avoid this, some extractor systems are eliminating and collecting the peel oil before the juice is extracted. This is achieved by rasping and pricking the peel. The resulting oil raspings are spray washed off the peel and conveyed to a press...

Single Stage Extraction

In the case that carrier and solvent are immiscible, the concentration of solute in extract and raffinate can be graphically depicted with the equilibrium curve in the loading diagram. Together with the volumes of feed and solvent, the mass balance for the solute leads to the amount of solute that can be recovered. Whenever the miscibility of the two phases varies and is dependent on concentration, a triangular diagram is employed Fig. 2.5 . Here the three corners of the equilateral triangle...