References

1. Christiansen J, Lorentzen M (1987) Implantation of artificial sphincter for anal incontinence. Lancet 1:244-245

2. Lehur PA, Michot F, Denis P et al (1996) Results of artificial sphincter in severe anal incontinence. Report of 14 consecutive implantations. Dis Colon Rectum 39:1352-1355

3. Wong WD, Congilosi S, Spencer M et al (2002) The safety and efficacy of the artificial bowel sphincter for faecal incontinence: results from a multicenter cohort study. Dis Colon Rectum 45:1139-1153

4. Ortiz H, Armendariz P, DeMiguel M et al (2002) Complications and functional outcome following artificial anal sphincter implantation. Br J Surg 89:877-881

5. Altomare DF, Dodi G, La Torre F et al (2001) Multi-centre retrospective analysis of the outcome of artificial anal sphincter implantation for severe faecal incontinence. Br J Surg 88:1481-1486

6. Parker SC, Spencer MP, Madoff RD (2003) Artificial bowel sphincter: long-term experience at a single institution. Dis Colon Rectum 46:722-729

7. Michot F, Costaglioli B, Leroi AM, Denis P (2003) Artificial anal sphincter in severe fecal incontinence: outcome of prospective experience with 37 patients in one institution. Ann Surg 237:52-56

8. Lehur PA, Zerbib F, Glemain P et al (2002) Comparison of quality of life and anorectal function after artificial sphincter implantation. Dis Colon Rectum 45:508-513

9. O'Brien PE, Dixon JB, Skinner S et al (2004) A prospective randomised controlled clinical trial of placement of the artificial bowel sphincter (Acticon Neosphinc-ter) for the control of fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 47(11):1852-1860

10. Savoye G, Leroi AM, Denis P, Michot F (2000) Mano-metric assessment of an artificial bowel sphincter. Br J Surg 87:586-589

11. Romano G, La Torre F, Cutini G et al (2003) Total anorectal reconstruction with the artificial bowel sphincter: report of eight cases. Dis Colon Rectum 46:730-734

12. Marchal F, Doucet C, Lechaux D et al (2005) Secondary implantation of an artificial sphincter after abdominoperineal resection and pseudocontinent perineal colostomy for rectal cancer. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 29:425-428

13. Mundy L, Merlin TL, Maddern GJ, Hiller JE (2004) Systematic review of safety and effectiveness of an artificial bowel sphincter for faecal incontinence. Br J Surg 91:665-672

14. Vaizey CJ (2004) Letter to the editor. Dis Colon Rectum 47:1162

15. Matzel KE, Kamm MA, Stösser M et al and the MDT 301 Study Group (2004) Sacral Spinal Nerve Stimulation for Faecal Incontinence Multicentre Study. Lancet 363:1270-1276

16. Rasmussen OO, Butzen S, Sorensen M et al (2004) Sacral nerve stimulation in fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 47: 1158-1163

Table 4. Comparison of artificial bowel sphincter (ABS) and sacral nerve stimulation (SNS)

Score

(mean ± SD)

(mean ± SD)

P value

CCS

9.4 ± 3.3

5.6 ± 3.9

<0.01

KESS

6.3 ± 6.3

12.8 ± 5.7

<0.01

SF-36

46.2 ± 10

47.2 ± 9.9

NS

(physical)

SF-36

49.3 ± 8

43.3 ± 14

NS

(emotional)

SNS sacral nerve stimulation, SD standard deviation, ABS artificial bowel sphincter, CCS Cleveland Clinic Score, KESS Knowles-Eccersely-Scott Symptom score, SF-36 Short Form-36

SNS sacral nerve stimulation, SD standard deviation, ABS artificial bowel sphincter, CCS Cleveland Clinic Score, KESS Knowles-Eccersely-Scott Symptom score, SF-36 Short Form-36

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

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