Applicability To Humans

What are the implications of these studies of n-3 fatty acid deficiency and subsequent repletion in rhesus monkeys to human beings First, these data strongly suggest that any n-3 fatty acid-deficient state will be corrected by fish oil containing EPA and DHA or in other studies, a diet containing n-3 fatty acids from soy oil (18 3n-3 linolenic acid). The brain phospholipids will readily assemble the correct amounts of DHA in the sn-2 position of the phospholipid molecular species. Furthermore,...

EFA Ratio and Stress

Our own study examined the effects of a mixture of fatty acids on cortisol and cholesterol levels in laboratory stress situations. (Yehuda, al el, 2000). A compound of free nonesterified unsaturated fatty acids a-linolenic and linolenic acids in a ratio 1 4 was administered for 3 wk prior to injection of cortisone (10 mg kg) or prior to immersion of rats in a 10 C saline bath. The results confirmed the expected elevation of cortisol and cholesterol level in stress, but, more importantly, the...

DHA n3 C226

Carbon skeleton models of DHA (n-3) and DPA (n-6) noting the position of the methyl terminal double bond at the n-3 and n-6 positions respectively. various animal species (including man) to make DHA. In humans, the conversion rate of LNA to DHA is estimated to be 2.5-4.0 (Gerster, 1998) and that depends on the diet of the individual. In infants, this can even be as low as 1 conversion (Salem, et al., 1996). This means that most humans living on a Western diet will have insufficient in...

Crossnational Epidemiology And Major Depression

The analyses of cross-national epidemiological data, collected using high-quality modern diagnostic and epidemiological sampling methods, does provide one method of testing the hypothesis that a lower omega-3 fatty acid status is related to higher prevalence rates of affective disorders, psychotic disorders, or aggressive behaviors. Economic data describing seafood consumption has been useful in these cross-national studies. Although economic data on the production and consumption of seafood...

Diet And Schizophrenia

Although there have been studies that have shown the importance of dietary essential fatty acids (EFAs) for healthy neurodevelopment (Crawford, 1993), until recently there had been no studies of infant feeding practices in relation to subsequent schizophrenia. It has been shown that the children of women pregnant during the Dutch famine (19441945) were significantly more likely to develop schizophrenia in later life (Susser & Lin, 1992). Although these women suffered multiple dietary...

Body Energy Homeostasis

Many factors are involved in the control of food intake. Some of the most important factors controlling the amount of food that we eat include environmental factors such as food availability, the characteristics of the food itself (e.g., smell, taste, our eating habits, learned preferences and aversions) as well as other psychological and social factors, including our lifestyle. Although these psychosocial factors are extremely important to the food intake patterns of humans, this section will...

Ketones And The Ketogenic Diet

The KD was formulated as an epilepsy treatment around 1921 (Wilder, 1921). The diet was designed to simulate the biochemical changes of fasting, which was long recognized as an efficacious, short-term way to reduce seizures in persons with epilepsy (Geyelin, 1921). The diet consists of a high percentage of fat, adequate protein for growth, and minimal carbohydrate, constituted in a ratio of 3-4 g of fat for every gram of combined protein and carbohydrate (hence the notations 3 1 or 4 1 for the...

Enzymes Associated With Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis

In 1984, an FAEE synthase enzyme was purified to homogeneity from rabbit myocardium (Mogelson, 1984). At an early step in the purification, there were two peaks of enzyme activity separable by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The larger peak of enzyme activity (the second one) was purified more than 5000-fold, with an overall yield of 40 . Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 26,000, and gel permeation...

Dietary Lna And Dha As Substrates For Brain And Retina Dha Compositional Studies

In nontracer experiments, relative contribution of dietary LNA and DHA to CNS DHA accretion have been examined in various species, including chicks, rat pups, newborn piglets, and guinea pigs. Anderson and colleagues studied the relative efficacy of LNA and DHA in restoring neural DHA levels in newly hatched chicks, as presented in Fig. 1 (Anderson, Connor, & Corliss, 1990). Laying hens were fed a n-3-deficient diet for 2 mo, and their hatched chicks were then fed a control diet or...

Cholesterol and Fatty Acids

Cholesterol is involved in many functions of the membrane. It is well established that cholesterol decreases the membrane fluidity index, with consequences on the activity of ion channels, and receptor functions and is involved in dopamine release. Moreover, cholesterol is a key molecule in the end product of the CRF-ACTH axis. Steroids are derivatives of cholesterol and it is, therefore, interesting that various fatty acids have differential effects on cholesterol metabolism. Huang et al....

Pufa A Feasible Epilepsy Treatment

The preceding discussion has established the following (1) PUFAs are an important modulator of neuronal excitability (2) dietary PUFA can alter several aspects of brain function (3) the ketogenic diet is an effective therapeutic modality for some persons with epilepsy (4) the mechanism of the ketogenic diet's seizure protective effect is unknown but may involve lipid components (5) the ketogenic diet is composed of a high volume of fats that contain a variable proportion of PUFA. From these...

Effects Of La And Gla Treatment On Diabetic Nerve

The reduced activity of the n-6 fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in the diabetic nerve could decrease the availability of AA for prostanoid formation and this could have deleterious consequences on the nerve vasculature, with resultant adverse effects on nerve function. The depletion of AA could be exacerbated by a heightened level of reactive oxygen species ROS , which react readily with the double bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A number of investigators have examined the effect of...

Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters As Markers Of Ethanol Intake

Fatty Acid Intake America

Because of the long half-life of FAEEs in adipose tissue, it was suggested that FAEE in adipose tissue could be a laboratory marker for previous alcohol intake, particularly for forensic applications where adipose tissue samples can be readily obtained. In postmortem samples from four chronically intoxicated subjects whose blood ethanol levels were zero, it was demonstrated that prior ethanol ingestion could be established by the presence of FAEEs in the adipose tissue Laposata, 1989 . In this...