Plexiform Neurofibroma

Vagina Diseases

INTRODUCTION Plexiform neurofibromas are the most common benign peripheral nerve tumor occurring in the eyelid and are considered pathognomonic for type 1 neurofibromatosis NF-1 . The lesion arises from and grows along any peripheral nerve. Plexiform neurofibromas typically present in children during the first decade of life. Mechanical ptosis can be profound, and in younger children may cause deprivation amblyopia. Associated systemic and ocular findings in patients with neurofibromas are...

Inverted Follicular Keratosis

Follicular Keratosis

INTRODUCTION Inverted follicular keratosis is a benign skin lesion that is common on the face and less frequently on the eyelids. It occurs in older individuals from the fifth decade on, and is considerably more common in males. It is frequently mistaken for a malignant tumor. These lesions arise from the infundibular epithelium of the hair follicle and therefore are related to epidermoid cysts. Inverted follicular keratosis may be an irritated form of seborrheic keratosis or verruca vulgaris....

Evaluation of Eyelid Lesions

Lesions Definition

The eyelids may be affected by benign and malignant lesions. Most of these are common elsewhere on the body, but when occurring on the eyelid they are often different in character, appearance, and behavior because of the unique characteristics of eyelid skin. A large number of cutaneous and systemic disorders may be associated with eyelid lesions. In many instances the eyelid findings are quite specific for a particular disorder, at other times they may be rather non-specific. These ocular...

Surgical Management of Eyelid Lesions

Atlas Oculoplastic Surgery

Some eyelid lesions can be identified by their history and clinical appearance, and then treated appropriately. However, many benign lesions can be confused with more aggressive malignant tumors from which they must be differentiated. When doubt exists as to a specific diagnosis, a biopsy should be obtained and submitted for histopathologic evaluation. Based on the findings a more directed therapeutic approach can then be planned. In some cases such as inflammatory lesions medical therapy alone...

Chalazion and Hordeolum

Chalazion Histology

INTRODUCTION A chalazion and hordeolum are focal inflammatory lesions of the eyelid that results from the obstruction of secretory glands. In a chalazion there is no acute bacterial infection, but rather a chronic inflammatory lesion with circumferential fibrosis. When this involves the meibomian glands they form a deep chalazion, whereas when there is involvement of the more superficial glands of Zeis in the dermis or glands of Moll associated with the pilosebaceous unit a more superficial...

Angioedema and Urticaria

Urticaria And Angioneurotic Edema

INTRODUCTION Angioedema and urticaria are common transient phenomena that result from mast cell degranulation with the release of mediators that promote vascular permeability, causing proteins and fluids to extravasate into the extracellular space. In urticaria fluid collects within the dermal tissue, whereas in angioedema fluid collects in the deeper subcutaneous space. The causes of mast cell degranulation are varied and include both immunologic and nonimmunologic mechanisms. Systemic...

Anatomy of the Eyelids

Upper Lid Anatomy

The eyelids serve several valuable functions. Most importantly they provide mechanical protection to the globe. They also provide vital chemical elements to the precorneal tear film, and help distribute these layers evenly over the surface of the eye. During the blink phase the eyelids propel tears to the medial canthus where they enter the puncta of the lacrimal drainage system. The eyelashes along the lid margins sweep air-borne particles from in front of the eye, and the constant voluntary...

Histopathologic Terminology

Granulation Tissue Wound Healing Photos

The use of descriptive terms in histopathology is a valuable method for standard communication which allows both the pathologist and the clinician to understand specific histologic characteristics of biological materials. One or more of these characteristics may be specific for certain lesions, thus allowing a more precise diagnosis. In some cases, knowledge of such characteristics can also help the clinician make a provisional diagnosis that might allow therapeutic decisions such as to biopsy...