T A

Fig. 13.14 Flow sheet of a composting plant with rotting drum in closed shed. sition. Maturity describes the suitability of the compost for plant growth and has been associated with the degree of humification. Several methods are used in practice to determine maturity and stability e.g., simple field tests in Dewar flasks, tests on plants, respiration activity, chemical analyses, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 1 to 26 . The various procedures for determining the maturity and stability of...

Principles of the Heap Technique

Heap Technique For Soil Treatment

The heap technique for biological soil treatment is an ex situ technology, that is, the contaminated soil is excavated and separated from the uncontaminated material. In contrast to so-called 'landfarming', where the contaminated material is spread over a large area in a comparably thin layer and mixed with the existing soil cover, in the heap technique the contaminated soil is prepared by homogenizing and mixing with additives and then piled up in heaps. Figure 10.1 shows the different steps...

Aerobic and Anaerobic Degradation of Xenobiotics

Except for pesticides and insecticides, which are widely used in horticulture and farming and small amounts of which are washed into the groundwater, many xenobiotics are spilled in the environment, by spot contamination or contamination of large areas. Biological remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with gasoline e.g., Yerushalmi and Guiot, 1998 and the volatile fractions of diesel oil e.g., Greiff et al., 1998 , even at low temperatures Margesin and Schinner, 1998 , seems to be no...

Mass and Energy Balance for Anaerobic Glucose Degradation and Sewage Sludge Stabilization

For anaerobic wastewater or sludge treatment, oxygen must be excluded to maintain the low redox potential that is required for survival and metabolic activity of the acet-ogenic, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic populations. Hydrolysis of polymers, uptake of soluble or solubilized carbon sources, and the primary metabolic reactions of glycolysis up to pyruvate and acetate formation seem to proceed identically or at least analogously in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Whereas aerobes oxidize...