Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

DIY Power Plant Dish System

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DIY Power Plant Dish System Summary

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Other Solid State Lasers

In solid-state lasers using media such as ruby and neodymium (Nd)-doped YAG, a rod made from the lasing material is optically pumped. While flashlamps were originally the predominant pump sources for pulsed solid-state lasers, newer, high-power AlGaAs diode lasers, emitting near 800 nm, are increasingly being used for pumping Nd YAG lasers this technique and frequency doubling or summing have made it possible to produce small, energy-efficient CW solid-state lasers emitting green and blue light.

The Market for Environmental Biotechnology

The benefits are not, however, confined to the balance sheet. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 2001) concluded that the industrial use of biotechnology commonly leads to increasingly environmentally harmonious processes and additionally results in lowered operating and or capital costs. For years, industry has appeared locked into a seemingly unbreakable cycle of growth achieved at the cost of environmental damage. The OECD investigation provides what is probably the first hard evidence to support the reality of biotechnology's long-heralded promise of alternative production methods, which are ecologically sound and economically efficient. A variety of industrial sectors including pharmaceuticals, chemicals, textiles, food and energy were examined, with a particular emphasis on biomass renewable resources, enzymes and bio-catalysis. While such approaches may have to be used in tandem with other processes for maximum effectiveness, it seems that their use...

Electrostimulation Of Metabolite Production

A notably innovative approach toward increasing the microbial production of an end product is electrostimulation. Electrical stimulation of microbial metabolite production is based on the use of an artificial electron carrier such as neutral red, allowing an electric current to indirectly supply the electron-driving force needed to generate a proton-motive force for energy conservation and the electrons needed for growth and end product production (24).

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Endurance Energy conservation Self-care Ambulation Walking Circulation status Cardiac pump effectiveness Rest Respiratory status Symptom severity Nutritional status Energy INTERVENTIONS. Activity therapy Energy management Circulatory care Exercise therapy ambulation Oxygen therapy Self-care assistance Nutrition management

Brain Energy Metabolism

All the processes described in this textbook require energy. Ample clinical evidence indicates that the brain is exquisitely sensitive to perturbations of energy metabolism. This chapter covers the topics of energy delivery, production, and utilization by the brain. Careful consideration of the basic mechanisms of brain energy metabolism is an essential prerequisite to a full understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of brain function. The chapter reviews the features of brain energy metabolism at the global, regional, and cellular levels and, at the cellular level, extensively describes recent advances in the understanding of neuron-glia metabolic exchanges. A particular focus is the cellular and molecular mechanisms that tightly couple neuronal activity to energy consumption. This tight coupling is at the basis of functional brain imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Box 55 Diauxic growth

When E. coli grows in a medium containing glucose and lactose, it preferentially metabolises the former since it is more energy efficient to do so. The cell has a regulatory mechanism that suppresses the synthesis of lactose-metabolising enzymes until all the glucose has been used up (see Chapter 11). At this point a second lag phase is entered, while the lactose metabolising enzymes are synthesised. Such growth is termed diauxic, and the resulting growth curve is characteristically biphasic.

Key concepts in sleep functions

A non-exhaustive list includes anabolic processes, brain cooling, energy conservation, restoration of brain molecules, removal of neurotoxins, and higher-order functions such as brain maturation, species-specific programming, and brain plasticity 12,13 . This complicated situation has led some researchers to conclude that sleep has no primary function and instead may serve different purposes in different animals and possibly at different stages of life 4 . This is a valid position, but one that must be critically evaluated because it is also possible that this collection of hypotheses is merely an incomplete description of a deeper, more basic process. Therefore it is useful to consider why scientists have been unable to identify a core function of sleep, and what basic properties of sleep a unifying theory of sleep function must explain.

The problem with evolution

These complex interactions have led to much confusion regarding sleep function. First, not all changes in the brain or the body during sleep may be critically important in a given species. Some may reflect vestigial aspects of sleep that once were adaptive, but during the course of evolution have lost their importance, much like the appendix, or pilo-erection in humans. An example of such a vestigial sleep process may be sleep-related changes in thermoregulation in humans 11 . A reduction in heat production (and associated metabolism) during sleep may have been an adaptive, energy-conservation strategy in our smaller mammalian ancestors (the so-called energy conservation theory of sleep) 23,24 , but the energy savings obtained in humans is minuscule 6 - and likely offset by the increased brain metabolism of REM sleep 25 .

Countercurrent Distillation Rectification

- in vacuum rectification, the low pressure loss per plate permits energy savings For heating pumps, employing a direct product stream, e.g. vapour recompression, results in a higher difference between head and sump temperature than the usage of an external compression fluid. After adjustment of the operating conditions, a head and a sump product form. The reduced thermal exposure is of advantage, as well as the low energy requirements and the high output. Methods developed on a laboratory scale can be transferred to semi-industrial and industrial units.

Membrane Homogenizers

Membrane homogenizers form emulsions by forcing one immiscible liquid into another through a glass membrane that is uniform in pore size. The size of the droplets formed depends on the diameter of the pores in the membrane and on the interfacial tension between the oil and water phases 30 . Membranes can be manufactured with different pore diameters, with the result that emulsions with different droplet sizes can be produced 30 . The membrane technique can be used either as a batch or a continuous process, depending on the design of the homogenizer. Increasing numbers of applications for membrane homogenizers are being identified, and the technique can now be purchased for preparing emulsions in the laboratory or commercially. These instruments can be used to produce oil-in-water, water-in-oil, and multiple emulsions. Membrane homogenizers have the ability to produce emulsions with very narrow droplet size distributions, and they are highly energy efficient, since there is much less...

Principles Of Laser Capture Microdissection

Laser capture microdissection is based on the selective adherence of visually targeted cells and tissue fragments to a thermoplastic membrane activated by a low-energy infrared laser pulse (Fig. 1). The basic system (marketed by Arcturus, Mountain View, CA) consists of an inverted microscope, a solid-state near-infrared laser diode, a joystick-controlled microscope stage, and hardware and software for laser control and image archiving. A new system for automated microdissection with expanded technical capabilities has recently been introduced by the same company. The thermoplastic membrane used for the transfer of selected cells is mounted on an optically clear cap which fits on standard 0.5-mL microcentrifuge tubes for further processing.

Advanced Techniques And Instrumentation

An important technique used to conduct structural studies with MALDI-TOF MS is the so-called postsource decay (PSD). The MALDI process results in different classes of desorbed particles, ions, neutral particles, and metastable particles that undergo decay during their drift toward the detector. The decay is initiated by low-energy collisions of neutral matrix molecules with analyte ions. To analyze the PSD products, precursor ions are preselected (based on mass) via an ion gating device. Products and precursors are resolved through the use of single-staged or two-staged reflectrons. Some applications for the PSD approach are described in ''Applications in Proteomics.''

Lignin Decomposition by Saprotrophs

As cellulose decomposition proceeds, the concentration of the more recalcitrant lignin increases (Figure 1 Berg et al., 1982). At later stages of decomposition, decay correlate well with lignin concentration in the litter (McClaugherty and Berg, 1987). Polyphenolic compounds, either tannins present in the fresh litter or products of lignin decomposition, form recalcitrant complexes with nitrogen-containing compounds, such as proteins and chitin (Kelley and Stevenson, 1995). As a result, nitrogen progressively becomes incorporated into the highly recalcitrant, polyphenolic litter fraction during decomposition (Berg, 1988). In highly decomposed coniferous forest humus, more than half of the nitrogen was found in the acid insoluble (i.e. polyphenolic) fraction (Johnsson et al., 1999). Bas-idiomycetes have been highlighted as the main organisms responsible for lignin degradation, using elaborate oxidative enzyme systems (Rayner and Boddy, 1988 Chapter 2). There are, however, large energy...

Macrophyte Treatment Systems MaTS

The link between the general desire for biodiversity conservation and the acceptability of created wetlands was mentioned earlier. One of the most important advantages of these systems is their potential to create habitats not just for 'popular' species, like waterfowl, but also for many less well-known organisms, which can be instrumental in bolstering the ecological integrity of the area. This may be of particular relevance in industrial or urban districts. At the same time, they can be ascetically pleasing, enhancing the landscape while performing their function. These systems can have relatively low capital costs, but inevitably every one must be heavily site specific, which means many aspects of the establishment financing are variable. However, the running costs are generally significantly lower than for comparable conventional treatment operations of similar capacity and efficacy. In part the reason for this is that once properly set up, a well-designed and constructed facility...

Linear Library Optimization

Filter all analogs with a rapid, approximate method based on the co-crystal structure of the target-fragment complex to eliminate analogs of the fragment hit that are unlikely to bind. We use a computational approach based on the energy minimization and docking scoring functions from Northwestern Dock 63 . We constrain each analog to bind initially as observed for the fragment hit, sample multiple sterically allowed, low-energy conformers of its substitu-ents using the Open Eye 61 OMEGA software 64 , and perform a rapid energy minimization for each conformer against all available structures of the target protein (up to 50 in some cases). Multiple protein structures with differing conformations are included at this step, because our minimization scoring approach maintains the protein structure as a rigid object and only allows ligand movement. Elaborated fragment conformations are only rejected if they prove sterically incompatible with ALL of the available target structures.

Repression of gene expression

Glucose is central to the reactions of glycolysis (Chapter 6), and is utilised by E. coli with high efficiency, because the enzymes involved are permanently switched on or constitutive. The j-galactosidase required for lactose breakdown, however, must be induced. What happens then, when E. coli is presented with a mixture of both glucose and lactose It would be more efficient to metabolise the glucose, with the ready-to-use enzymes, but from what you have learnt elsewhere in this section (see Figure 11.15b), the presence of lactose would induce formation of j-galactosidase and subsequent lactose breakdown, a less energy-efficient way of going about things. In fact, E. coli has a way of making sure that while the readily utilised glucose is present, it takes precedence. It does this by repressing the formation of j-galactosidase, a phenomenon known as catabolite repression. Thus, the presence of a 'preferred' nutrient prevents the synthesis of enzymes needed to metabolise a less...

Submerged Fermentation

Tongwen and Weihua (150) studied the effect of cell configurations on energy consumption and the electroacidification parameters in citric acid production by bipolar membrane electrodialysis. Three basic cell arrangements, type I A (anion membrane)-C (cation membrane)-BP (bipolar membrane)-A-C, type II C-BP-C, and type III BP-A-C-BP, were used. Type I generated acid citrate by acidification with acid sulfate produced from the dissociation of sodium sulfate, and type II produced acid citrate by replacing Na+ with H+ generated at bipolar membrane electrodialysis. Type III generated acid citrate by directly splitting sodium citrate. From energy consumption, current efficiency, and concentration of the produced acid citrate, it was suggested that type II seems to be a favorable cell configuration for the production of citric acid. Other workers (141,147) studied the production of citric acid from synthetic medium by S. lipolytica and A. niger using a stirred tank reactor and a disk...

Selection of Fragments

The two-dimensional structures of known active molecules can be analysed to identify constituent fragments, which may form the basis of substructure- and similarity-based cheminformatics searches. During this deconstruction process, we have found it useful not to be limited to a purely retrosynthetic approach but also to consider other approaches to deconstructing the molecule. After all, molecular recognition does not occur on the basis of how the ligand can be synthesised. If active conformations are known, e.g. from X-ray crystallography, these or components of them can form three-dimensional queries which could be used in similarity searches to identify fragment molecules with low-energy conformations that can adopt similar shapes.'331 In addition, three-dimensional conformations can be used in more conventional pharmacophore searches. For instance, workers at Vernalis used a CDK2-hymenialdisine complex crystal structure to derive a kinase pharmacophore to select a set of focused...

Fruits and Vegetables Fruits

Immediately after irradiation, pectin in the 10 to 30 yellow papaya showed depo-lymerization and demethoxylation. However, irradiation at doses from 0.5 to 1.0 kGy of fruit at the 25 to 30 yellow ripeness stage had less depolymerization of pectin and a firmer texture when ripe than the controls. Firmness of the irradiated fruit lasted 2 days longer than the controls. Earlier work in the U.S. showed a consumer preference for irradiated papaya.202 The International Atomic Energy Agency has recently published an excellent book on the use of irradiation as a quarantine method for treatment of fruit such as mangos, papaya, and grapefruit in several countries.203 Thomas204 has reviewed possible applications of irradiation for the preservation of subtropical fruits, citrus, grapes, and avocados. Miller and MacDonald205,206 have reported that the treatment of Florida grapefruit with irradiation at 0.3 kGy delayed ripening and increased fruit firmness without damaging fruit quality. Mitchell...

Comparison Of Single And Twin Screw Extruders

In single screw extrusion, the use of steam for heating provides about one half of the energy necessary for heating. The other half comes from mechanical energy. Twin screw extrusion heat is provided primarily with mechanical energy inputs. The use of steam will lower energy costs as it is a inexpensive source of energy giving single screw extruders the

Short rotation coppicing

The practicalities and limitations of generation from such a fuel source largely lie beyond the scope of the present work to examine. In general, though, ensuring continuity of supply and adequate production can be problematic. In addition, while much interest has been shown in the idea of using the biomass produced by a number of individual growers in a single generator, the logistics and transport costs are major obstacles to overcome. It is possible to characterise any given fuel in terms of its calorific value per unit mass, which is referred to as its energy density (ED). Clearly, high ED confers obvious advantages in terms of storage and delivery. Wood, however, is a relatively low energy density fuel and hauling it to a centralised facility, thus, becomes costly, both in economic and environmental terms, especially over long distances. There is a clear advantage, then, in maximising the final yield of energy cropped trees and integrated biotechnology can assist in this regard.

Tofsims Acquisition

Many biological specimens are electrically insulating and will tend to acquire a positive charge during positive ion bombardment (see Note 25). To alleviate this phenomenon charge compensation is required, usually through the use of a low-energy (30 eV) electron flood-gun. The electron beam and secondary ion extraction field must be pulsed such that the low energy electrons are not accelerated by the extraction field. Pulse synchronization is such that the electron pulse arrives at the specimen between the primary ion pulses, when the extraction field is pulsed off.

Fermentation and respiration

The chemiosmotic model, proposed by Peter Mitchell in 1961, states that the proton, or hydrogen ion, gradient which develops across an intact membrane during biological oxidations is the energy store for the subsequent synthesis of ATP. This model somewhat revolutionised the then current thinking on the energy source for many cellular processes, as the principles of energy storage and availability according to the chemiosmotic theory were applicable to many energy-demanding cellular phenomena including photosynthetic phosphorylation and some cross-membrane transport systems. It could even account for the movement of flagellae which propel those bacteria possessing them, through a liquid medium. The chemiosmotic theory accounts for the coupling of the transmembrane proton gradient to ATP synthesis. It implies that during oxidation, the electrons flow down from high to low energy using that energy to drive protons across a membrane against a high concentration, thus developing the...

Bioreactor Configurations 341 Submerged Fermentor Systems

Airlift Submerged Bioreactor

The main advantages of a fluidized bioreactor system as observed in ethanol production from S.cerevisiae (18) are superior mass and heat transfer characteristics, very good mixing between the three phases, relatively low energy requirements, and low shear rates (which makes a fluidized bed reactor suitable also for shear sensitive cells such as mammalian and plant cells).

Clinical presentation

Most of the clinical features of pheochromocytoma result from metabolic and hemodynamic actions of norepinephrine and epinephrine secreted by the tumor (1,5,13). Hypertension is the most common clinical sign. Headache, excessive truncal sweating, and palpitations are the most common symptoms. Although pallor is found only in a small number of patients, the presence of this sign is highly suspicious for pheochromocytoma and, together with hypertension and excessive sweating, provides a high probability of the diagnosis. Some patients may also suffer from anxiety, unusual nervousness, constipation, low energy level, and exhaustion after attacks (Table 1). Differential diagnoses include panic and anxiety syndromes, hypernoradrenergic hypertension, supraventricular tachycardia, baroreflex failure, postural tachycardia syndrome, cluster or migraine headache, hypertensive encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, carcinoid tumor, adrenomedullary hyperplasia, and hyperthyroidism. Pheochromocytomas must...

Organelle Structure and Energy Production

Often described as the power plant of the cell, mitochondria generate ATP by extracting energy from sugar, fats, and other fuels with the help of oxygen. Mitochondria generate most of the energy in animal cells through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. In this process, electrons are passed along a series of protein complexes that are located in the inner mito-chondrial membrane. The passage of electrons between these protein complexes releases energy that is stored in the membrane, and is then used to make ATP from ADP.

Single Cell Production An Example of Bioprocess Design

From 1985 to 1991, a research team at CINVESTAV-IPN developed a high-cell-density process for food-grade Candida utilis production from sugarcane molasses. A continuous, 10.5-m3, jet-loop fermentor was designed to take advantage of its intrinsic high oxygen transfer rate and energy efficiency. This fermentor was provided with a computer system for online data acquisition and for controlling the molasses flow rate in response to inferred ethanol production rates. The operating costs were minimized because of the efficient conversion of molasses into biomass and of the low water consumption in the fermentation stage. The capital costs were kept down due to the high productivity achieved in the fermentation process. An overview of the most important aspects of the process developed is presented below.

Molecular Biology and Drug Design

Molecular Graphics deals with the representation and manipulation of biological molecules in a computer. It is a newly established scientific field encompassing the theoretical and application areas of computer science that deal with geometry and visualization. Among these areas are computer graphics, computer animation, computer vision, computational geometry and computer-aided geometric design. In this section we will try to introduce some definitions for the concept of molecular surface and molecular volume.The three-dimensional geometric structure of a molecule is often represented as a set of atoms (Figure 1). In this representation each atom is modeled as a hard sphere with a certain atomic radius. The three-dimensional placement of the spheres is expressed according to the internal distances between the centers of each pair of atoms (interatomic distances) and their relative angles (Table 1). The equilibrium configuration of this representation is defined as the low energy...

Future Technologies And Challenges

The world energy consumption, conservation, environmental concerns, worldwide market globalization, frozen, refrigerated, shelf stable processed food products competition and the high manufacturing costs will force the frozen food products industry to increase R&D challenges and to develop new technologies. These new technologies could be based on 2. Equipment Flexibility. Improvement in equipment flexibility, efficiency and energy consumption. The designing of small self-contained refrigeration units which could be used in food freezing or food products distribution and storage. 5. Manipulation of the Freezing Point. The manipulation of the freezing point of food ingredients and raw materials, by using biotechnology principles, ingredients and or changes in its physical characteristics and chemical structure without affecting its nutritional, quality and flavor values, open new R&D opportunities. Major improvements could be accounted, (in the finished product quality, food product...

Timing and Mechanism of Injury

Individual biological variation, sexual dimorphism, and age-related changes in leg bone size, cortical thickness, cross-sectional morphology, trabecular integrity, and resilience need to be considered in the forensic assessment. More gracile bones will be less resistant to fractures as will bones in which the endosteal surface has been resorbed as a result of age, hormonal influences, medical treatment, or the use of certain medications, alcohol, or illicit drugs (17). For example, there is a bimodal distribution of subtrochanteric and distal femoral fractures with an initial peak in young adulthood associated with high energy impact and a second peak in older individuals, usually female, associated with relatively low-energy impact (18,19). For this reason, it is difficult to estimate the actual force involved for the already damaged bone, although ranges can be produced from experimental situations in which the test bones are chosen to approximate the size and dimensions of the bone...

Callionymus spp See Dragonets

Salmonidae to the Osmeridae (which also includes the *Smelt), are small, abundant, oil-rich fish, widely distributed in subarctic waters (Stergiou 1989), and important as prey for a large number of predators, notably codlike fishes, seabirds and marine *mammals. Previously used as bait in the great cod fisheries of Atlantic Canada (Anon 1871), or for their roe (the carcasses being thrown away), they have been recently much depleted by industrial fisheries (usually supplying fish meal plants), ofwhich at least one supplied a power plant in which Capelin were burnt to generate electricity (Clover 1991). This is only slightly worse than the proposed use offish oils as alternative to diesel fuels (Blythe 1996). These practices have led to a shortage of prey for human food fishes and for birds, notably in the North Sea (Robertson et al. 1996), prompting calls to phase out such destructive operations.

On Line Instrumentation

Much of the work at Southwest Research Institute is reviewed in a paper by Nicholls and De Los Santos (Nicholls and De Los Santos, 1991). They describe a system which encloses a side stream of the production line, a system based on a magnet which resides below the production line using one sided magnet and coil geometries and a system which resides below the line but samples from it into a more conventionally shaped spectrometer via a piston. A schematic, reproduced from the original paper, of this last system which has been built and successfully tested in the field, is shown in figure 4. It was developed under a US Department of Energy contract as a means for improving energy conservation in agricultural drying plants. A mechanical piston is lowered and product from the line falls into

Oxidative Phosphorylation

The findings of numerous investigators since the mid-1970s support the role of the CK circuit as an integrated system of energy supply and energy consumption in cardiovascular tissue. It is clear that when Cr enters the cell via the specific Cr transporter (see Chapter 3) rapid phosphorylation by the CK reaction takes place. The resultant PCr is utilized by the cell for essential metabolic processes. The CK system plays a role in both energy transduction and signal amplification in cardiovascular tissue (see Chapter 5).

Protein Synthesis In Nervous Tissue

The process by which integral membrane proteins are synthesized closely follows the secretory pathway, except integral proteins are of course not released from the cell, but instead remain within cellular membranes. Synthesis of integral proteins begins with synthesis of the nascent chain on a polysome that is not yet bound to the RER membrane (Fig. 2.4). The emergence of the N terminus of the nascent protein from the protein-synthesizing machinery allows a ribonu-cleoprotein, a signal recognition particle (SRP), to bind to an emergent hydrophobic signal sequence and prevent further translation (Walter and Blobel, 1981 Walter and Johnson, 1994 Gilmore et al., 1982a,b). Translation arrest is relieved when SRP docks with its cognate receptor in the RER and dissociates from the signal sequence in a process that requires GTP. Synthesis of transmembrane proteins on RER is an extremely energy-efficient process. The passage of a fully formed and folded protein through a membrane is,...

The dark reactions

In the broadest sense of environmental biotechnology, the potential maximisation of solar energy usage, either as a means to the remediation of contamination or to reduce potential pollution by, for example, excessive fertiliser demand, could be of considerable advantage. Hence, appropriately engineered C3 plants

Solvent Evaluation

Since a solvent is only an auxiliary medium, which has to be removed after the separation step, it needs to feature a low boiling point in order to avoid thermal degradation, the formation of off-flavours and the loss of top notes. Low values of the evaporation enthalpy and specific heat, physical properties which determine the energy consumption during solvent recovery are of similar importance.

Nadp Nadph

Contrary to previous estimates based on measurement of heat production in peripheral unmyelinated nerves (Creutzfeld, 1975), the cost of action potential propagation is rather elevated. Thus, if an action potential is considered to actively depolarize the cell body and axons by 100 mV and passively depolarize the dendrites by 50 mV, the calculation yields a value of 3.8 x 108 ATP neuron. This calculation is based on the estimate of the minimal Na+ influx required to depolarize the cell (Attwell and Laughlin, 2001). If calculations also include Ca2+-mediated depolarization of dendrites, the cost is increased by 7 . Remember that these energetic costs are due to the activation of ATPases needed to restore ion gradients. Thus, the overall cost of synaptic transmission plus action potential propagation for a pyramidal neuron firing at 4 Hz would be 2.8 x 109 ATP neuron s. The basal energy consumption for maintenance of the resting potential based on the estimates of input resistance,...

Host Location

Host location is usually restricted to particular times of the day for each species of blood-sucking insect. Thus, tsetse flies tend to be crepuscular, Anopheles gambiae (the most important vector of malaria) is a night feeder, and the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans bites during the day. As hunger increases, bouts of host location behavior intensify. For many blood-sucking insects such as the tsetse, the first behavior is often to choose a resting site where they have a good chance of encountering a host-derived signal and once there to remain motionless and wait for a host-derived signal. This strategy combines minimal energy usage with a good chance of encountering a host. Other blood-sucking insects use more active strategies. If a gentle wind is blowing from one direction the optimum strategy can be to fly across the wind so that the probability of contact with a host odor plume is enhanced. Host-derived olfactory clues used include carbon dioxide, lactic acid, acetone, octenol,...

Septic tank

The land application of such liquors requires care since too heavy a dose may lead to damage to the soil structure and an alteration of the osmotic balance. Long-term accumulation of these salts within the soil produces a gradual reduction of fertility and ultimately may prove toxic to plants, if left to proceed unchecked. Moreover, the characteristically high levels of unstabilised organic material present and the resultant low carbon to nitrogen ratio tends to make these effluents extremely malodorous, which may present its own constraints on available options for its treatment. It is inevitable that issues of social acceptability make land spread impossible in some areas and, accordingly, a number of food and drink manufacturers have opted for anaerobic digestion as an on-site treatment for their process liquors. This biotechnology, which is described in greater detail in Chapter 8, is extremely effective at transforming the organic matter into a methane-rich biogas, with a high...

Discussion

According to this model, an assemblage of inorganic and organic particles enters the estuary as smaller flocs and primary particles with the inflowing freshwater, approaches the ETM, and is swept up and over the leading edge of the salt front. Salinity increases due to mixing, enhancing particle stickiness and aggregation due to electrochemical flocculation, phytoplankton cell lysis, sloppy feeding by zooplankton, and bacterial production. In surface waters, floc size is limited by sinking losses and turbulent disaggregation. Large flocs that sink into the low energy pycnocline

Epidemiology

The epidemiology of fractures to the acetabulum is difficult to accurately identify. Although these are serious injuries resulting from high-energy trauma, in general they are uncommon injuries. Overall, fractures of the pelvis make up 0.3 to 6 of all fractures, with 44 of these occurring as either isolated fractures of the acetabulum or as combined acetabulum and pelvic ring injuries (11-13). In the elderly, especially in those patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia, moderate or low-energy injuries can also produce acetabular fractures and may need to be distinguished from patients presenting with pelvic or periacetabular pain due to insufficiency fractures (14,15). In addition, fractures to the acetabulum may be missed due to an expectation of a hip fracture resulting from a moderate or low-energy injury (16,17). In the elderly, the incidence of proximal femur, pelvic, and acetabular fractures has been expressed by the ratio 60 10 1 (11) translating into approximately 240,000...

Classification

Before attempting to classify any fracture, it is essential that an accurate radiographic diagnosis be obtained to understand the fracture pathology and how best to manage it. It is important to remember, however, that not all complaints of pelvic pain are derived from a traumatic event. When trying to differentiate pelvic pain in elderly patients, insufficiency or stress fractures should be considered. These usually present as nondis-placed fractures, may have normal appearing X rays, and may occur not only from high-energy trauma (29) but also from low-energy trauma, such as a fall from a standing height (30,31). In addition, the diagnosis has also been made in patients who present with rheumatological disorders (32,33), Crohn's disease (30), vitamin or mineral deficiencies (34), and osteoporosis (14,15,31,35-38). These fractures can occur

Misconceptions

Consumer activist groups, such as the Health and Energy Institute and the National Coalition to Stop Food Irradiation, have made several unsubstantiated claims against food irradiation. They have claimed that there will be an increased risk of nuclear accidents. However, the half-life of cobalt-60 is such that there is no threat of meltdown because of the low energy. Activists are concerned about increased waste, but such sources to be used only constitute a minute portion of the 2.68 million ft3. In addition, machine sources offer no waste. It is claimed that the food irradiation process is being pushed as a way to use radioactive waste from nuclear power and weapon production, but cobalt-60 is the isotope of choice created for use in medical centers. Concern has been expressed that irradiation will produce mutated microorganisms however, it has been found that such organisms lack vigor and decrease in number because of competitive survivability. Finally, it has been expressed that...

Economic Analysis

Table 3.2 shows an economical comparison among different yeast production processes. Speichim and Vogelbusch process data were obtained from industrial facilities operating in Cuba, while CINVESTAV process data were gathered from trials at the industrial plant. The total capital investment for a new facility using the CINVESTAV process is about 80 to 85 that required for conventional processes. Raw material costs are reduced to nearly 20 , mainly as a result of a higher biomass yield on molasses and minimal use of ammonia, which is utilized instead of ammonium sulfate. The specific energy consumption of the fermentors employed is 0.39, 0.55, and 0.53 kWh kg-cell1 for the airlift fermentor (Speichim), STR (Vogelbush), and jet-loop fermentor (CINVESTAV), respectively, so energy consumption is very similar for the STR and jet-loop fermentor. As a result of culturing at high cell density, water consumption is reduced by two thirds, but utilities cost for the CINVESTAV process is slightly...

Endocrine disorders

Patients with chronic endocrine disorders may complain of EDS. Sleepiness is a well-recognized symptom of hypothyroidism. Additionally, hypothyroidism has been reported as a risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea 75 . It is not clear in some patients with hypothyroidism whether the sleepiness they experience is due to a direct effect of the hypothy-roid state or to a co-existing SRBD. Patients with acromegaly have also been shown to have an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, with reported rates from 39 to 58.8 76,77 . On the other hand, patients with growth hormone deficiency consistently report low energy, fatigue, and impaired sleep quality 78 .

Initial Management

The initial orthopedic care for these patients should consist of correcting any deformity, promptly reducing any obvious dislocations, especially of the hip since this may decrease the incidence of femoral head osteonecrosis (50), applying sterile dressings to all wounds, and splinting all injuries until formal treatment can be performed. For displaced acetabular fractures, the application of skeletal traction through a small diameter distal femoral pin should decrease the patient's level of pain and improve alignment of the fracture. In addition to providing some comfort to the patient, the traction may also prevent further abrasions to the cartilage of the femoral head on the raw bony acetabular fragments. Skin traction is ineffective and traction applied through a trochanteric pin is contraindicated due to its ineffectiveness and high rates of infection. However, because a large number of elderly patients can present with isolated acetabular fractures resulting from a low-energy...

Carbon sequestration

Carbon Sequester Gardening

Unsurprisingly, energy industries account for the greatest share (36 ) of carbon dioxide emissions, a large 1000 Megawatt coal-fired power station releases something in the region of million tonnes of CO2 annually. Clearly, the current focus on reducing fossil fuel usage, and on minimising the emissions of carbon dioxide to atmosphere, is important. In one sense, the most straightforward solution to the problem is simply to stop using fossil fuels altogether. However, this is a rather simplistic view and just too impractical. While great advances have been made in the field of renewable energy, a wholesale substitution for gas, coal and oil is not possible at this time if energy usage is to continue at an unabated rate. The potential role of existing nonfossil fuel technology to bridge the gap between the current status quo and a future time, when renewables meet the needs of mankind, is a vital one. However, it is ridiculous to pretend that this can be achieved overnight, unless the...

Electrode 2

Business Model Canvas Value Proposition

The interferential method is used most often for the therapeutic stimulation of nerves and muscles in the treatment of acute pain, edema reduction, and muscle rehabilitation. It is not a common modality for functional neuromotor stimulation because it requires greater energy consumption and a larger number of electrodes. Scientists in the former Soviet Union also use interferential currents delivered through scalp electrodes to produce narcosis (electronarcosis) and anesthesia (electroanesthesia). This last application, which does not involve causing convulsions as with ECT, is very controversial and seldom used in Western psychiatry.

Photoreceptors

Is converted to PCr, which then diffuses into the outer segments to regenerate ATP for visual cycle events (i.e. regeneration of cGMP and phosphorylation reactions). The creatine phosphate shuttle then serves to supply energy from the inner to the outer segments and nerve terminals for the rapid regeneration of ATP at the point of energy consumption. These results have been confirmed and extended by studies of bovine retina (Hemmer et al., 1993). Using specific antisera and light and electron microscopy, two distinct isoforms of CK (BB-CK and mitochondrial CK) were shown to be separately compartmentalized in the outer and inner segments of the photoreceptors. Furthermore, the ATP-generating potential of the CK system was sufficiently large to regenerate the entire ATP pool during a photic cycle (Hemmer et al., 1993).

Light and Radiation

Radiation refers to two different phenomena light and high-energy particles. Visible light represents a small slice of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes long-wavelength (low-energy) radio waves and short-wavelength (high-energy) ultraviolet waves, plus X rays and gamma rays. These high-energy forms can directly disrupt DNA by breaking its chemical bonds. In severe cases, this can break apart chromosomes, causing chromosome aberrations. More often, they create mutagenic free radicals in the cell. X rays were first used by Hermann Muller to induce mutations in fruit flies. They continue to be used to create mutations in model organisms to study genes and their effects.

Biodiesel

As stated at the outset, biodiesel is a product derived by the application of chemistry to material of biological origin and is not, thus, biotechnological in the truest sense. It does, however, illustrate very well the influence of local modality as one of the recurrent themes of the sector. For a time, use of biodiesel in the USA was confined to certain niche markets, principally because relatively low conventional fuel prices and the contemporarily high cost of vegetable oil made wider uptake unattractive. However, the impact of the legislative requirement for alternative fuel in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) has led to a major upsurge in usage, especially amongst bus operators and hauliers, for whom it is the most cost-effective option available.

Extremophiles

As to offer significant advantages over existing traditional processes. Many current industrial procedures generate pollution in one form or another and the challenge of such 'green chemistry' is to design production systems which avoid the potential for environmental contamination. The implementation of 'clean manufacturing technologies' demands considerable understanding, innovation and effort if biologically derived process engineering of this kind is to be made a reality. With environmental concerns placing ever growing emphasis on energy efficiency and low carbon usage, industrial applications of the life sciences in this way seem likely to be increasingly relevant. To date, however, there has been little commercial interest in the extremophiles, despite their very obvious potential for exploitation.

Metabolism

The broadest and most significant metabolic distinction among the Eubacteria is based on the source of energy they use to power their metabolism. Like humans, many bacteria are heterotrophs, consuming organic (carbon-containing) high-energy compounds made by other organisms. Other bacteria are chemolithotrophs, which use inorganic high-energy compounds, such as hydrogen gas, ammonia, or hydrogen sulfide. Still others are phototrophs, using sunlight to turn simple low-energy compounds into high-energy ones, which they then consume internally.

Food Irradiation

For many consumers, the phrase food irradiation conjures up images of devastation, debilitation, or concerns regarding danger to both life and the environment. Much of the unfounded fear is created by equating irradiation with its root word radiation. Food irradiation is a food preservation process or method that can protect food from microorganisms, insects, and other pests that can make our food supply unsafe or undesirable. Compared with other food preservation processes, food irradiation has many advantages, such as low energy consumption and low cost (even compared with conventional refrigeration and deep freezing). It is a cold process, which means that there are no changes in texture of the food, such as those that occur with canning or freezing. Food irradiation is an excellent alternative to chemical fumigants, such as the banned ethylene dibromide, and as a process is extremely effective to control many foodborne diseases, e.g., salmonellosis. Finally, as a process, food...

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