Terry O Matsunaga

Imarx Therapeutics Inc., Tucson, AZ 85719

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Background

12.2.1. Basic physics of sound

12.2.2. History of the development of ultrasound in medicine

12.2.3. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound in drug delivery

12.3. Ultrasound applications in drug delivery

12.3.1. Chemotherapeutic drugs

12.3.1.1. ultrasound in cancer therapy

12.3.1.2. Mechanisms of ultrasound-enhanced chemotoxicity

12.3.1.3. Ultrasound as adjuvant to overcome the clinical effects of multidrug resistance

12.3.2. Thrombolytic drugs

12.3.2.1. Thrombosis and its clinical implications

12.3.2.2. Limitations of present treatment modalities for thrombosis

12.3.2.3. Ultrasound and its role in the treatment of thrombosis

12.3.2.4. Mechanisms of ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis

12.3.2.5. Lower-frequency ultrasound in ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis

*To whom correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed at the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Campus Box C-238, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Denver, CO 80262. Phone: 303-315-6997; Fax: 303-315-0274; e-mail: [email protected].

Drug Delivery: Principles and Applications Edited by Binghe Wang, Teruna Siahaan, and Richard Soltero

ISBN 0-471-47489-4 © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12.3.3. Proteins

12.3.3.1. Limitations of transdermal drug delivery

12.3.3.2. Ultrasound-enhanced transdermal delivery of proteins

12.3.3.3. Mechanism of enhancement of transdermal drug delivery by low-frequency ultrasound

12.3.4. Gene-based drugs

12.3.4.1. Historical perspective of gene therapy

12.3.4.2. Ultrasound-mediated gene delivery and its mechanism

12.4. Ultrasound contrast agents

12.4.1. Ultrasound contrast agents as imaging agents

12.4.2. Targeted ultrasound contrast agents

12.4.3. Ultrasound contrast agents and their roles in thrombolysis

12.4.4. Ultrasound contrast agents and their roles in gene therapy

12.5. Conclusion References

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