Terry O Matsunaga

Imarx Therapeutics Inc., Tucson, AZ 85719 12.2.2. History of the development of ultrasound in medicine 12.2.3. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound in drug delivery 12.3. Ultrasound applications in drug delivery 12.3.1.1. ultrasound in cancer therapy 12.3.1.2. Mechanisms of ultrasound-enhanced chemotoxicity 12.3.1.3. Ultrasound as adjuvant to overcome the clinical effects of multidrug resistance 12.3.2.1. Thrombosis and its clinical implications 12.3.2.2. Limitations of present treatment...

References

Byrne, B. C. Rice, M. C. Gryn, J. Holloman, W. K. Kmiec, E. B. Science 1996, 273, 1386-1389. 2. Igoucheva, O. Yoon, K. Hum. Gene Ther. 2000, 11, 2307-2312. 3. Gurunathan, S. Klinman, D. M. Seder, R. A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2000, 18, 927-974. 4. Nishikawa, M. Huang, L. Hum. Gene Ther. 2001, 12, 861-870. 5. Emlen, W. Mannik, M. J. Exp. Med. 1978, 147, 684-699. 6. Emlen, W. Mannik, M. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1984, 56, 185-192. 7. Emlen, W. Burdick, G. J. Immunol....

Xanthine Derivatives

Mechanism of action of drugs for asthma therapy. Schering Plough), which targeted airway receptors and exhibited reduced systemic side effects. A series of short-acting agents following the same general structure (shown in Figure 16.3A) were developed, including terbutaline (AstraZeneca) and fenoterol (Boehringer Ingelheim). As the chemistry of these drugs came to be understood, they were modified to achieve several things, including local metabolism to an active agent, increased...

Expression of FRs in Normal Tissues

FRs have also been detected in normal tissues, particularly those involved in the retention and uptake of the vitamin. For example, the choroid plexus in the brain expresses high levels of FR. However, the receptor is primarily localized to the brain side of the blood-brain barrier, where it is inaccessible to blood-borne folates or folate-drug conjugates.59,65,66 The FR has similarly been located on the apical membrane surface of the intestinal brush border,67 but again, access to these...

Prodrugs And Intellectual Property Rightstwo Court Cases

The primary purpose for developing prodrugs is, of course, not to circumvent intellectual property rights but to obviate certain disadvantages that may have precluded an active agent from being used in clinical applications. Therefore, if undesirable properties of a drug molecule cannot be overcome by conventional changes in the pharmaceutical formulation or route of administration, the method of choice is to use one of the prodrug approaches discussed above. The parent drug usually came first...