Egg Production Ebooks Catalog
ALV-induced disease is a cause of some economic loss to the poultry industry in the United States, and occasional more serious epizootics (such as a recent outbreak of hemangioma in Israel) due to ALV have occurred. Control of infection is generally by detection and culling of infected individuals. No useful vaccination strategy has been developed. In principal, it should be possible to virtually eliminate the disease by breeding the appropriate Tv-a and Tv-b alleles into commercial strains in practice this has not been done very often. A more recent strategy is to introduce defective proviruses encoding envelope protein into the germline of birds these can block infection by inducing superinfection resistance.
IBDV has also a worldwide distribution and can cause considerable damage to the poultry industry. The serotypes determine the host range of this virus. Serotype I is exclusively pathogenic for chickens infections in turkeys are subclinical. Serotype II, on the other hand, has been isolated from turkeys affected with coryza and diarrhea, but it remains unclear whether this serotype has any true pathogenic significance. Infections of chickens with serotype II do not cause clinical manifestations or noticeable lesions, and natural infections are uncommon. Transfer of the virus usually takes place via the fecal oral route.
When only the cutaneous form is present in the flock, the birds recover readily. However, those lesions on the eyelids (Fig. 2A) or around the beak may interfere with vision and feeding. In such birds productivity is reduced. There is poor feathering in young birds and a transient drop in egg production may also occur in layers. In the diphtheritic form of the disease clinical signs will vary, depending upon the location and severity of the lesions (Fig. 2B). Lesions in the trachea, pharynx and sinuses interfere with breathing. High mortality occurs due to suffocation resulting from blockage by tracheal lesions. Clinically, respiratory tract lesions simulate signs caused by other respiratory pathogens, especially infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Lesions in the mouth interfere with feeding, resulting in lowered productivity and increased mortality.
Other attempts to improve the well-being of caged animals may have similar paradoxical effects, not because of the nature of the animals, but because of the economics of animal maintenance. Most people seem to believe that the larger the enclosure in which an animal is kept, the better off the animal will be. However, rats in nature spend most of their lives in burrows consisting of small nest chambers connected by even smaller tunnels. Perhaps rats like to be kept in closely confined spaces. In fact, when given a choice between tall cages and short ones, rats are nonresponsive. Similarly, researchers at Oxford University in England have found that domesticated hens raised in the cramped battery cages'' (see CHICKENS) used for commercial egg production show no preference when given the choice between a large pen and a battery cage.
MEADOWSWEET is equally unlucky in Welsh superstition. If someone fell asleep in a room where many of these flowers were put, death was inevitable. It was even dangerous for anyone to fall asleep in a field where there was a lot of it growing. This sounds as if it were an extension of the fear of bringing any white flower - hawthorn, lilac, etc., indoors, to which PEAR blossom must be added. That too would cause a death in the family (Vickery. 1995). PRIMROSES were not always entirely welcome when brought indoors - it all depended on how many were gathered. Two or three brought into a poultry keeper's house in early spring, before the chicks were hatched, meant bad luck to the sittings, but it would be alright if there were thirteen or more flowers, or no less than a handful . In Devonshire they said that the number of primroses brought in would agree with the number of chickens reared, and the same was said in Norfolk (Friend. 1883), for thirteen is the number traditional to a clutch...
In Israel in 1958 and the causative virus isolated in 1959. ITV was later found to be transmitted by culicine mosquitoes, but was also isolated from culicoid midges, and phlebotomine sandflies were shown to be capable oftrans-mitting the virus. In 1978 the virus was isolated as a cause of disease of turkeys in South Africa. The virus has not been found in any other country, and disease has only been reported in turkeys. The disease generally occurs seasonally, only in birds older than 10 weeks, and it is characterized by progressive paresis and paralysis, with morbidity and mortality rates ranging from 15 to 80 . Turkey breeder hens exhibit a severe drop in egg production. Vaccines are available.
Forms of algae have been used from time immemorial as an alternative source of food. Several civilizations have adopted this efficiently, and developed recipes, which helped human beings in meeting the nutritional needs for their wellbeing. Algae were often used as a famine food by virtue of its availability under drought conditions. Persistent consumption from generation to generation established the safety of such algal food materials. The need for ensuring nutritional security has lead to the evaluation, from the point of view of essential micro- and macronutrients, of algal resources, both from fresh water and marine forms. The uniqueness of algae as a source of protein, vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids and health promoting substances, as well as the advancement of food science and nutrition, have thrown light on the versatility of algal forms in meeting nutritional and nutraceutical requirements of the human beings. The food chain in the ecosystem involves...
The damp-wood termites nest in wet and rotting wood, especially fallen logs and stumps in forests. Damp-wood termites were formerly grouped within harvester termites (Hodotermitidae), but now are considered a separate family. Damp-wood termites are among the largest termites, some reaching almost 25 mm in length. Most individuals retain marked developmental plasticity. There are about 20 species and they are limited to forests in the Americas, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. Egg production per queen is relatively low (
The poultry industry led the trend towards industrialization of livestock production. Technology developed since the 1950s enabled the automation of chicken and turkey production. Nearly all broilers and egg layers and more than half of all turkeys are produced under contracts to large integrators, with most poultry operations located within 32.19 km (20 miles) of the integrator (Ollinger et al., 2000). This limits the amount of land available for spreading and hence the ease and cost of disposal of the waste.
All ants have haplodiploid sex determination. This property probably had a major role in the evolution of their eusociality through kin selection. Males are haploid, having only a single set of chromosomes, and thus the sperm that individual males produce is genetically homogeneous. Hence, the (diploid) daughters of the same mother and father are unusually closely related to one another, a circumstance likely to have favored the evolution of female workers. Nevertheless, there can be continuing conflicts within colonies between the workers and the queen (or queens) over the sex ratios they produce and which colony members produce the males. Queens can choose to produce either unfertilized (haploid) eggs destined to become males or fertilized (diploid) eggs. The latter may develop into workers or potential new queens (gynes) generally depending on how much food they receive as larvae. The workers may or may not be sterile. Fertile workers produce viable (unfertilized) haploid eggs that...
Intraspecific competition for dung occurs in a range of beetle species, expressed as a reduction in the number of eggs laid female at high densities. There is also evidence for interspecific competition in which the presence of beetles of one species reduces egg production of a second species. In these instances the competition is frequently asymmetric, and the larger species has a greater effect on the smaller species than the other way round, particularly at high beetle densities. The competitive advantage of larger beetles is associated with preemptive dung burial, whereby they bury a greater proportion of dung in the first day.
While neither Mendel nor anyone else in his day knew anything about chromosomes or genes, the laws of inheritance he discovered predicted exactly how genes behave on chromosomes during the reproductive process. Indeed, the factors he discovered are genes, which come in pairs and segregate on separate chromosomes during sperm and egg production, just as he suggested. Gene pairs located on different sets of chromosomes will assort independently during the process. While most genes do not exhibit simple dominance-recessiveness relations, and most traits are governed by more than one gene, it is to Mendel's credit that he began by trying to understand simple systems in order to develop generalizable laws.
Your fertility doctor will explain the exact medications, their timing, and the necessary protocol requirements. The goal is to hormonally prepare the donor for egg production and retrieval and to prepare your uterus to receive the embryos that will be transferred. Ultrasound and blood tests may be performed to ensure that both the donor and recipient are properly prepared and ready to proceed.
Newcastle disease is a serious problem throughout Asia and the commercial poultry industry is totally dependent on control by vaccines. The disease is thought to be endemic throughout southeast Asia. It is a major problem in much of Africa, where traditional poultry raising at the village level is common and where effective vaccination is difficult to achieve. Velogenic virus has been recorded in the USA and many countries in South America. Canada and Chile were free of the disease in 1985 (the last survey) but vaccination was practised. Only two countries in Europe, Luxembourg and Norway, have never recorded outbreaks of NDV. NDV is present in certain parts of the former USSR and vaccination is practised. In 1985 no velogenic strains were reported in the former USSR. In Australia and New Zealand, avirulent strains are present in the poultry population, as indicated by the production of antibodies, but no disease is evident and vaccination is not routinely carried out.
A disease caused by Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus (ITV) infection in turkeys was first observed in Israel in 1958 and the causative virus isolated in 1959. ITV was later found to be transmitted by culicine mosquitoes, but was also isolated from culicoid midges, and phlebotomine sandflies were shown to be capable of transmitting the virus. In 1978 the virus was isolated as a cause of disease of turkeys in South Africa. The virus has not been found in any other country, and disease has only been reported in turkeys. The disease generally occurs seasonally, only in birds older than 10 weeks, and it is characterized by progressive paresis and paralysis, with morbidity and mortality rates ranging from 15 to 80 . Turkey breeder hens exhibit a severe drop in egg production. Vaccines are available.
ILTV is readily transmitted from infected to susceptible chickens, and virus shedding and spread mainly occur via the respiratory and ocular routes. Early cytolytic replication of ILTV in the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract results in syncytia formation and subsequent desquamation. Following the acute phase of infection, which lasts for approximately 6-8 days, ILTV establishes latency in the central nervous system (CNS), in particular in trigeminal ganglia. No clear evidence exists for a viremic phase in the course of lytic infection, latency, or reactivation. Sporadic reactivations from the latent state are usually asymptomatic, but generally lead to productive replication in the upper respiratory tract and virus shedding, which can result in infection of susceptible contact animals. The severity of clinical symptoms of ILT depends on the virulence of a particular ILTV strain or isolate, and mortality rates range from 0 to 70 . Severe epizootic forms of ILT are characterized...
Avian HEV was first isolated and characterized in 2001 from bile samples ofchickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in the United States, although a big liver and spleen disease virus (BLSV) with 62 nucleotide sequence identity to HEV (based on a 523 bp genomic region) was reported in 1999 from chickens in Australia. HS syndrome is an emerging disease of layer and broiler breeder chickens in North America characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production. Dead birds have red fluid or clotted blood in their abdomens, and enlarged livers and spleens. Avian HEV shared c. 80 nucleotide sequence identity with the Australian BLSV, suggesting that big liver and spleen disease (BLS) in Australia and HS syndrome in North America are caused by variant strains of the same virus.
As with other spring flowers, notably cowslips and primroses, one has to be careful with daffodils when there is poultry about. There is an old Manx superstition that it is bad luck to a poultry keeper if two or three of the flowers are brought into the house in early spring, before the goslings are hatched (the Manx name for the daffodil shows the connection - it translates to Goose-leek). One finds this superstition in Devonshire, too, while a Cornish belief was that if a goose saw a daffodil before hatching its goslings, it would kill them when they did hatch (Courtney). A Dorset compromise says that you must always take care that the first daffodils brought into the house each season should be a large bunch, for otherwise something is sure to go wrong with the poultry (Udal). Judging from the primrose and cowslip beliefs, what you really should do is to take in quite a bunch - two or three are fatal the ideal is probably thirteen or more. On the other hand, in parts of...
The poultry industry is the largest (in terms of animal numbers) and most highly automated of all of the animal-production industries. In the United States alone, nearly 8 billion poultry, mainly chickens and turkeys but also waterfowl, game birds, ostriches, and emus, are raised each year. Chickens have undergone intense genetic selection, and two distinct types of chickens are now used, one for egg production and a faster-growing bird (a broiler) for meat production. Chickens and turkeys are produced by an increasingly smaller number of companies that oversee all phases of production, from hatching to slaughter. Turkeys, broilers, and breeder flocks are typically housed in large groups on the floor in enclosed or semienclosed buildings, while almost all chicken hens used for egg production are housed in ''battery'' cages. Another controversial practice is induced molting, which is used to extend the period of egg production in a flock. Birds in the wild normally molt their feathers...
Duck adenovirus 1 (DAdV-1) is the causative agent of egg drop syndrome (EDS), which results in depressed egg production accompanied by the production of abnormal (soft-shelled or deformed) eggs. The disease was first experienced in Europe in 1976, and soon became known worldwide. Retrospective serological studies confirmed the presence ofhemagglutination inhibitory antibodies to EDS virus in archive sera originating from a large number of wild and domestic bird species, with a predominance in waterfowl, which are now considered as the main reservoir. The virus was initially assigned to genus Aviadenovirus, but was recorded as an exception because ofits lack ofcommon complement-fixing antigens with other fowl adenoviruses. Genome analysis of the EDS virus revealed its relatedness to atadenoviruses, and DAdV-1 has consequently been moved into this genus, which is hypothesized to be the adenovirus lineage of reptilian hosts.
Where To Download How to Build a Backyard Chicken Coop
Free versions of How to Build a Backyard Chicken Coop can not be found anywhere on the net.