Suggested Reading

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Chessa M, Carminati M, Butera G, et al. Early and late complications associated with transcatheter occlusion of secundum atrial septal defect. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1061-1065. Cooke JC, Gelman JS, Harper RW. Echocardiologists' role in the deployment of the Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device in adults. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2001;14:588-594. Cowley CG, Lloyd TR, Bove EL, Gaffney D, Dietrich M, Rocchini AP. Comparison of results of closure of secundum atrial septal defect by surgery versus Amplatzer septal occluder. Am J Cardiol 2001;88:589-591.

Dittmann H, Jacksch R, Voelker W, Karsch KR, Seipel L. Accuracy of Doppler echocardiography in quantification of left to right shunts in adult patients with atrial septal defect. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;11:338-342.

Hausmann D, Daniel WG, Mugge A, Ziemer G, Pearlman AS. Value of transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography for detection of different types of atrial septal defect in adults. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1992;5:481-488.

Kerber RE, Dippel WF, Abboud FM. Abnormal motion of the interventricular septum in right ventricular volume overload. Experimental and clinical echocardiography studies. Circulation 1973;48:86-96.

Kitabatake A, Inoue M, Asao M, et al. Noninvasive evaluation of the ratio of pulmonary to systemic flow in atrial septal defect by duplex Doppler echocardiography. Circulation 1984;69:73-79.

Kronzon I, Tunick PA, Freedberg RS, Trehan N, Rosenzweig BP, Schwinger ME. Transesophageal echocardiography is superior to transthoracic echocardiography in the diagnosis of sinus veno-sus atrial septal defect. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;17:537-542.

Losay J, Petit J, Lambert V, et al. Percutaneous closure with Amplatzer device is a safe and efficient alternative to surgery in adults with large atrial septal defects. Am Heart J 2001; 142:544-548.

Martin F, Sanchez PL, Doherty E, et al. Percutaneous transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale in patients with paradoxical embolism. Circulation 2002;106:1121-1126.

Mazic U, Gavora P, Masura J. The role of transesophageal echocardiography in transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects by the Amplatzer septal occluder. Am Heart J 2001; 142:482-488.

O'Rahilly R, Muller F. Human Embryology and Teratology, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001.

Shub C, Dimopoulos IN, Seward JB, et al. Sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography in the direct visualization of atrial septal defect utilizing the subcostal approach: experience with 154 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983;2:127-135.

Weyman A. Principles and Practice of Echocardiography, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1994.

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