Suggested Reading

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Berger M, Schweitzer P. Timing of thromboembolic events after electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter: a retrospective analysis. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:1545-1547. Black IW, Fatkin D, Sagar KB, et al. Exclusion of atrial thrombus by transesophageal echocardiography does not preclude embolism after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a multicenter study. Circulation 1994;89:2509-2513. Bollmann A, Binias KH, Grothues F, Schwerdtfeger A, Klein HU. Left atrial appendage function and pulmonary venous flow in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation and their relation to spontaneous echo contrast. Echocardiography 2002;19: 37-43.

Chan SK, Kannam JP, Douglas PS, Manning WJ. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography assessment of left atrial appendage anatomy and function. Am J Cardiol 1995;76: 528-530.

Ernst G, Stollberger C, Abzieher F, et al. Morphology of the left atrial appendage. Anat Rec 1995;242:553-561. Gallagher MM, Hennessy BJ, Edvardsson N, et al. Embolic complications of direct current cardioversion of atrial arrhythmias: Association with low intensity of anticoagulation at the time of cardioversion. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40: 926-933.

Garcia-Fernandez MA, San Roman D, Torrecilla E, et al. Transesophageal echocardiography detection of atrial wall aneurysm as a result of abnormal attachment of mitral prosthesis. Am Heart J 1992;124:1650-1652. Jue J, Winslow T, Fazio G, Redberg RF, Foster E, Schiller NB. Pulsed Doppler characterization of left atrial appendage flow. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1993;6:237-244. Kaymaz C, Ă–zdemir N, Kirma C, Sismanoglu M, Daglar B, Ozkan M. Location, size and morphological characteristics of left atrial thrombi as assessed by echocardiography in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease. Eur J Echocardiogr 2001;2: 270-276.

Klein AL, Grimm RA, Black IW, et al. ACUTE Investigators. Cardioversion guided by transesophageal echocardiography: the ACUTE pilot study. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:200-209.

Klein AL, Grimm RA, Murray RD, Apperson-Hansen C, et al. ACUTE Investigators. Use of transesophageal echocardiography to guide cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1411-1420.

Maltagliati A, Pepi M, Tamborini G, et al. Usefulness of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in the recognition of artefacts and normal anatomical variants that may mimic left atrial thrombi in patients with atrial fibrillation. Ital Heart J 2003;4:797-802.

Manning WJ, Silverman DI, Gordon SPF, Krumholz HM, Douglas PS. Cardioversion from atrial fibrillation without prolonged anticoagulation with use of transesophageal echocardiography to exclude the presence of atrial thrombi. N Eng J Med 1 993;328:750-756.

Manning WJ, Silverman DI, Katz SE, et al. Impaired left atrial mechanical function after cardioversion: relationship to the duration of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;23: 1535-1540.

Manning WJ, Silverman DI, Waksmonski CA, Oettgen P, Douglas PS. Prevalence of residual left atrial thrombi among patients presenting with thromboembolism and newly recognized atrial fibrillation. Arch Int Med 1995;155:2193-2197.

Manning WJ, Weintraub RM, Waksmonski CA, et al. Accuracy of transesophageal echocardiography for identifying left atrial thrombi: a prospective, intraoperative study. Ann Int Med 1995;123:817-822.

Mugge A, Kuhn H, Nikutta P, Grote J, Lopez JA, Daniel WG. Assessment of left atrial appendage function by biplane transesophageal echocardiography in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation: identification of a subgroup of patients at increased embolic risk. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;23:599-607.

Omran H, Jung W, Rabahieh R, et al. Imaging of thrombi and assessment of left atrial appendage function: a prospective study comparing transthoracic and transoesophageal echo-cardiography. Heart 1999;81:192-198.

Orsinelli DA, Pearson AC. Usefulness of multiplane trans-esophageal echocardiography in differentiating left atrial appendage thrombus from pectinate muscles. Am Heart J 1996;131:622-623.

Seto TB, Taira DA, Tsevat J, Manning WJ. Cost-effectiveness of transesophageal echocardiography-guided cardioversion for hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:122-130.

Silverman DI, Manning WJ. Current perspective: role of echocar-diography in patients undergoing elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Circulation 1998;98:479-486.

Stoddard MF, Dawkins P, Prince CR, Longaker RA. Transesophageal echocardiographic guidance of cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J 1995; 129: 1204-1215.

Subramaniam B, Riley MF, Panzica PJ, Manning WJ. Transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of right atrial appendage anatomy and function: comparison with the left atrial appendage and implications for local thrombus formation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2006 (in press).

The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) Investigators. A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1825-1833.

Van Gelder IC, Hagens VE, Bosker HA, et al. A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with recurrent persistent atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1834-1840.

Veinot JP, Harrity PJ, Gentile F, et al. Anatomy of the normal left atrial appendage: a quantitative study of age-related changes in 500 autopsy hearts: implications for echocardiographic examination. Circulation 1997;96:3112-3115.

Weigner MJ, Thomas LR, Patel U, et al. Early cardioversion of atrial fibrillation facilitated by tranesophageal echocardiography: Short-term safety and impact on maintenance of sinus rhythm at 1 year. Am J Cardiol 2001; 110: 694-702.

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