Psax

PLAX, A3C, A5C, PSAX

Poor (Grayburn 1986)

Poor c/w angiography (Perry 1987, Cape 1991)

Comparable with angiography (Perry 1987, Tribouilloy 1992)

Ozkan 2002

Better than jet width and area in parasternal projections (Tribouilloy 2000), parasternal short-axis doesn't underestimate multiple/ irregular jets (Taylor 1990) Accurate quantitation (Recusani 1991, Utsunomiya 1991, Vandervoort 1993, Giesler 1993, Chen 1993, Tribouilloy 1998)

Table 3C

Echocardiography Findings of Aortic Regurgitation and Relationship to Disease Severity

Parameters

Best TTE view

Literature evidence for grading with selected references

CW Doppler

Retrograde CW jet density

CW jet velocity

PHT of retrograde CW jet (diastolic jet deceleration)

Descending/abdominal aortic diastolic flow reversal, reverse VTI, reverse:forward VTI's

Rate of LV isovolumic pressure rise and fall from AI regurgitant velocity

PW Doppler

PW antegrade, VTI

Mitral inflow DT of E velocity

Descending/abdominal aortic diastolic flow reversal, reverse VTI, reverse:forward VTI's

A3C, A5C

A3C, A5C A3C, A5C

R-PLAX, supra-sternal, sub-costal

A3C, A5C A4C, A3C, A5C R-PLAX, supra-sternal, l sub-costa

Poor discernment between moderate and severe AI, good for distinguishing trace or mild AI from more severe disease Jenni 1989

Affected by LVEDP (Teague 1986, Masuyama 1986, Padial 1997) and AI chronicity (Griffin 1991)

Severity proportional to increased duration and velocity of reversal (Boughner 1975) (Touche 1985) (Tribouilloy 1991) Pai 1998

Rokey 1986, Enriquez-Sarano 1993

Reimold 1996, also as per CW Doppler measurement

A4C, apical four-chamber; A3C, apical three-chamber; A5C, apical five-chamber; AI, aortic regurgitation; CW, continuous wave; DT, deceleration time; LV, left ventricle; PLAX, parasternal long-axis; PSAX, parasternal short-axis; R-PLAX, right parasternal; VTI, velocity time integral.

Table 3D

Echocardiography Findings of Aortic Regurgitation and Relationship to Disease Severity

Parameters

Best TTE view

Literature evidence for grading with selected references

Calculations Jet width: LVOT width Jet CSA:LVOT CSA Regurgitant volume and fraction

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