Fig. 2. Parasternal long-axis view at end systole demonstrating the following cardiac structures: RV, right ventricle; LV, left ventricle; AV, aortic valve; MV, mitral valve.

M-Mode Echocardiography

M-mode images (M stands for "motion") can be thought of as a one dimensional, or "ice-pick" image, recorded over time. Most M-mode images are recorded in the parasternal long-axis view previously described (still frame of M-mode in parasternal long-axis). The ultrasound beam is maneuvered to slice through the structure of interest, producing a high-resolution image of this slice over time. The high resolution of M-mode images, and the ability to correlate them with a simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram, makes M-mode the image of choice for many measurements. Figures 3 and 4 demonstrate M-mode views through the left ventricle (LV) and through the mitral valve (MV).

Doppler Echocardiography

Doppler echocardiography is used to measure blood flow; it can assess flow velocity, direction, and turbulence


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Left ventricular level

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