Fig. 4. Systolic frame of the parasternal long-axis (PLAX) shows significant prolapse (>2 mm) of both mitral valve leaflets above the mitral annular plane. (Please see companion DVD for corresponding video.)

Caveats about detection of mitral valve leaflets include mistaking myxomatous or floppy valves for vegetations or masses (see Chapter 19, Fig. 11). MR may be absent at rest, but can be precipitated by exercise in some patients with MVP, so exercise stress echocardiography may be useful for diagnosis.

Although echocardiography is useful in defining MVP, the MVP syndrome includes associated clinical features and auscultatory findings. Furthermore, the pathology underlying the primary MVP may also affect other intracardiac valves, and assessment for concomitant prolapse of the tricuspid, pulmonary,


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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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