Info

otherwise use CW, and measure Doppler velocity (dimensionless) index

Pitfalls related to analysis

Inter- and intra-observer error in assessment

and interpretation

Learning curve

Pitfalls related to method

Flow dependence: affects most methods, especially the continuity equation

of assessment

Low-dose dobutamine challenge may be needed to assess contractile reserve

AF, atrial fibrillation; AS, aortic stenosis; AVA, aortic valve area; CW, continuous wave Doppler; LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract; MR, mitral regurgitation; PVC, premature ventricular contraction; PW, pulsed wave; TR, tricuspid regurgitation; VTI, velocity time integral.

AF, atrial fibrillation; AS, aortic stenosis; AVA, aortic valve area; CW, continuous wave Doppler; LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract; MR, mitral regurgitation; PVC, premature ventricular contraction; PW, pulsed wave; TR, tricuspid regurgitation; VTI, velocity time integral.

Sub-valvutar aortic stenosis i

Aortic valve

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