• Diastolic function
Contrast echocardiography strain quantification, left ventricular torsion Exercise, pharmacological, pacing
Right-sided contrast studies (agitated saline)
Functional • Diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognosis in coronary artery disease
Structural • Right-to-left shunts
• Persistent left superior vena cava
Chapter 4 / Utility of Echocardiography
Table 1A (Continued)
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