Apical Long Axis

Apical Long Axis Views

Fig. 13. Subvalvular aortic stenosis (arrows) with fixed membrane seen in apical long-axis view (A). (Please see companion DVD for corresponding video.)

suggested reading

Bonow RO, Carabello B, de Leon AC, Jr, et al. Guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease). Circulation 1998;98: 1949-1984.

Currie PJ, Seward JB, Reeder GS, et al. Continuous-wave Doppler echocardiographic assessment of severity of cal-cific aortic stenosis: a simultaneous Doppler-catheter correlative study in 1QQ adult patients. Circulation 1985; 71:1162-1169.

deFilippi CR, Willett DL, Brickner ME, et al. Usefulness of dobut-amine echocardiography in distinguishing severe from non-severe valvular aortic stenosis in patients with depressed left ventricular function and low transvalvular gradients. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:191-194.

Oh J, Seward J, Tajik A. The Echo Manual, 2nd ed. Rochester: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1999.

Oh JK, Taliercio CP, Holmes DR, Jr, et al. Prediction of the severity of aortic stenosis by Doppler aortic valve area determination: prospective Doppler-catheterization correlation in 100 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;11:1227-1234.

Pereira JJ, Lauer MS, Bashir M, et al. Survival after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis with low transvalvular gradients and severe left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1356-1363.

Skjaerpe T, Hegrenaes L, Hatle L. Noninvasive estimation of valve area in patients with aortic stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 1985;72:810-818.

Weyman A. Principles and Practice of Echocardiography, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Fibiger, 1994.

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