Direction Of Flow In Color Doppler

Direction Blood Flow Color Doppler

Start 15 sec 30 sec 45 sec 60 sec G 270 180 90 0s perceived incorrectly as counterclockwise and velocity, incorrectly, as 1 revolution per minute location (depth) to be interrogated. On the ultrasound machine, this is accomplished by placing a cursor over a specific area on the 2D image (Fig. 10). What the ultrasound machine is actually doing is emitting a pulse, then waiting the exact amount of time it would take that pulse to travel to the cursor location and return to the transducer. In PW...

Color M-mode Flow Propagation Velocity

Restrictive Physiology Cardiac Cath

Color M-mode flow propagation velocity. Color M-mode propagation velocities in a patient with normal left and abnormal right diastolic function. Vp, color M-mode color flow propagation velocity normal Vp cm s gt 45 diastolic dysfunction lt 45 . Fig. 14. Color M-mode flow propagation velocity. Color M-mode propagation velocities in a patient with normal left and abnormal right diastolic function. Vp, color M-mode color flow propagation velocity normal Vp cm s gt 45 diastolic dysfunction...

Echocardiograghy For Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis

Thickened Valvular Leaflets

Echocardiography features of rheumatic mitral stenosis. A Diastolic doming of the thickened anterior mitral valve leaflet hockey stick appearance, curved arrow is indicative of restricted anterior leaflet motion. Note the thickened subvalvular structures, including the chordae arrow . Note also the posterior pericardial effusion PE . B A systolic frame showing thickened mitral valve leaflets. C Commissural fusion arrowheads and bilateral leaflet thickening curved arrows resulting in...

Redundant Interatrial Septum

Interatrial Septum Subcostal Echo

A Parasternal short-axis PSAX and apical four-chamber views A4C show flow acceleration and left-to-right shunt across this secundum atrial septal defect on color Doppler examination. B Color flow Doppler applied to the interatrial septum from the subcostal window shows left-to-right shunt across interatrial septum. This view provides a better alignment for Doppler evaluation of shunt flow. C Continuous-wave Doppler examination of the atrial septal defect. Peak...

Basilar Inferior Wall Hypokinesis

Echocardiography With Definity Contrast

A 72-yr-old female patient underwent dobutamine infusion with atropine to achieve targeted heart rate. Baseline echocardiography images showed borderline left ventricular hypertrophy with preserved systolic function. Minimal septal hypokinesis was noted. With increasing doses of dobutamine, augmentation of all segments accompanied by decrease in left ventricular cavity size up to a heart rate of 110 bpm. However, at heart rates more than 115 bpm, left ventricular dilatation accompanied...

Papillary Muscle Echo

Posterior Mitral Jet

Apical 2-C hamber Parasternal Apical Long Axis Fig. 5. Coronary artery territories and segments. Anatomical left ventricular segments used in reporting regional wall motion American Heart Association classification and their corresponding blood supply. Significant overlap and congenital variations in coronary blood supply can occur. individual myocytes, and thereby causes a wall motion abnormality in the respective segment. At least a 70 reduction in cross-sectional diameter is required before...

Midcavity Gradient On Echocardiography

Sam Mode Pics

No clear etiological relationship to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the prominent septal knuckle found in DUST may cause dynamic outflow tract obstruction Fig. 24 . Mitral Regurgitation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy A posteriorly directed jet of mitral regurgitation typically accompanies SAM of the mitral valve for reasons explained previously Figs. 18 and 19 . It temporally follows the onset of LVOT obstruction and care should be taken not to confuse its Doppler velocity profile...

Infiltrate Cardiomyopathy

Mitral Valve Intra Cardiac Echo

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Autosomal dominant Autosomal recessive Naxos disease mal de Meleda Primary idiopathic Loeffler's Endomyocardial fibrosis Secondary Infiltrative Amyloidosis Sarcoidosis Storage Diseases Hemochromatosis Glycogen storage Lysosomal storage Fig. 1. Cardiomyopathies classification. fibroelastosis Mitochondrial diseases Ischemic Hypertensive Valvular Metaboliic Connective tissue Stress-related Takotsubo Myocardial Stunning Fig. 2. Cardiomyopathies three...

Impaired Propagation Velocity In

Hypertrophy Interventricular Septum

Dilated cardiomyopathy Mitral regurgitation. Mitral annular dilatation, lateral papillary muscle displacement, and apical tethering prevent normal leaflet coaptation. The result is typically mitral regurgitation MR with a centrally directed jet. Worsening MR heralds a worse prognosis. Color M-mode Doppler across the mitral valve apical four-chamber view during diastole provides a spatio-temporal display of blood velocities across the vertical interrogation line. This parameter may be...

Segment Left Ventricle Model ASE

Left Ventricular Wall Segments

Parasternal Long-Axis I Apical Long-Axis Parasternal Long-Axis I Apical Long-Axis Fig. 10. The American Society of Echocardiography ASE issued a 16-segment left ventricle model for wall motion assessment. The American Heart Association's AHA 17-segment model has an additional apical segment cap added to harmonize left ventricular segment nomenclature with nuclear cardiology and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A A 16-segment model of left ventricular segments ASE . B A 17-segment model of...

Pediatric Echo Training

Parasternal Long Coronary Cusps

Protocol and Nomenclature in Transthoracic Echocardiography Bernard E. Bulwer, MD, MSc and Jose Rivero, MD Transducer Scan Plane and Index Mark Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Imaging Planes Apical Four-Chamber View Apical Five-Chamber View Apical Two-Chamber View Apical Three-Chamber View Subcostal Views Suprasternal Views Examination Report Summary The transducer probe is the component that houses the piezoelectric crystals see Chapter 1 and emits and receives the sound waves Fig. 1 . The...

Carpentier Mechanism Of Mitral Regurgitation

Pulmonary Vein Flow Reversal

Pulmonary vein systolic flow reversal. Pulsed Doppler examination right upper pulmonary vein flow in severe mitral regurgitation shows reversal of pulmonary vein systolic flow, as depicted by the negative S-wave. Fig. 30. Mitral E-point velocity. A Pulsed Doppler of normal mitral inflow characteristically shows an early diastolic E-wave followed by the atrial A wave. B In severe mitral regurgitation MR , marked E-wave dominance is seen gt 1.2 m s , reflecting a marked increased in...