Ear Pain Remedies: Homeopathic Alternatives
Otitis Media (OM) is an infection of the middle ear most common in infants and toddlers during the winter months. It may be either viral or bacterial. Inflammatory obstruction of the eustachian tube causes accumulation of secretions in the middle ear and negative pressure from lack of ventilation. The negative pressure pulls fluid and microorganisms into the middle ear through the eustachian tube resulting in otitis media with effusion. The illness usually follows a URI or cold. The older child runs a fever, is irritable, and complains of severe earache, while a neonate may be afebrile and appear lethargic. The child may or may not have a purulent discharge from the affected ear. Myringotomy is a surgical procedure performed to equalize the pressure by inserting tubes through the tympanic membrane. The tympanostomy tubes remain in place until they spontaneously fall out. Most children outgrow the tendency for OM by the age of 6. There is a higher incidence in children exposed to...
Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear that can occur in one or both ears. It is the most common disease of childhood, after respiratory tract infections. OM is often caused by a buildup of infectious fluid within the eustachian tube, a slender canal in the inner ear. Symptoms of acute OM can include complaints of pain or tugging at the ear (in nonverbal children), a pus-like ear discharge, irritability, fever, poor appetite, and short-term hearing loss. OM with effusion indicates the presence of a watery or mucuslike fluid in the ear without symptoms of infection
In Ireland, the sap of an ASH sapling was use to cure earache. A sapling would be cut and put into the fire. One end was kept out so that when the stick started to burn, the sap came out and was caught in a spoon. This could be put on cotton wool, and put in the ear. This is actually a very old remedy take, for instance, this leechdom from the fifteenth century Take young branches of ash when they are green. Lay them on a gridiron on the fire, and gather the water that cometh out at the ends of them, an egg-shell full and of the juice of the blades of leeks, an egg-shell full and of the drippings of eels. Mix all these together, and seethe them together a little and cleanse them through a cloth, and put it in a glass vessel. And when thou hast need, put this in the whole ear of the sick man and let him lie on the sore ear. And with this juice used twice, he shall be whole (Dawson). Something similar appears in the Welsh medical text known as the Physicians of Myddfai. Evelyn had heard...
Applied to genetic issues, however, these techniques are less useful and may even contribute to failure to detect genetic involvement or appropriately consider genetic influences, thereby resulting in misdiagnosis or mistreatment. Specific characteristics of genetics thwart the clinical utility of these clinical reasoning strategies that are designed to identify observable pathology (phenotype), determine a proximate cause (diagnosis), and prescribe appropriate treatment and management. In particular, scientists determined that one gene can affect more than one trait (pleiotropy), that any single trait can be affected by more than one gene, and that the majority of traits are affected by environmental factors as well as by other genes. Identifying the cause of a clinical symptom (or trait) is then far more complicated than identifying a symptom or determining that a number of symptoms indicate the presence of disease. Furthermore, determining the clinical significance of any genetic...
Otitis media (shortened regimens) Sinusitis My own bias with regard to the new macrolides in pediatrics is that they will find their greatest usefulness in the therapy of respiratory infections pharyngitis, acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, bronchitis (which really is not a disease in children, except for pertussis), and pneumonia. One of the issues of concern is middle ear infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Table 4 presents the representative peak concentrations of erythromycin estolate, clarithromycin, and azithromycin in the middle ear fluid versus those of amoxicillin given to pediatric patients. The dosages are given in milligrams per kilogram. The achievable concentrations in middle ear fluid exceed the MICm value for intermediate penicillin-resistant organisms in most instances, and these values should be successful for management. The M1Cm values are not necessarily representative of usual values encountered in practice. Table 4 Macrolide Therapy for Acute Otitis...
Infection is transmitted via respiratory secretions. After a variable incubation period of up to 4 weeks the disease begins with growing hoarseness and aching throat, mild cough, and fever and does later develop into an atypical pneumonia. 12,13 In rare cases infection may also present as sinusitis or otitis media or lead to the aggravation of asthma. 14 In immunocompetent individuals the infection is usually self-limiting, but may be complicated by superinfections. In immunocompromised persons infection may take a more severe course. Reinfections do occur but are generally milder than primary infections. 13
During pregnancy, C. trachomatis may be transmitted from mother to fetus, which may cause premature rupture of the membranes, premature labor, and increased fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women who deliver vaginally or by cesarean section can transmit the bacteria to their infants. These newborns can develop otitis media, conjunctivitis, blindness, meningitis, gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, and pneumonia. Because mothers are often asymptomatic, medical personnel are unaware that the maternal-infant transmission has occurred until infants become very ill.
This causes severe ear pain and a combination of lesions in nerves VI, VII, VIII, and V, and is known as Gradenigo's syndrome Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.
In the endemic areas of Africa 60 of children with BL present with jaw tumors. These jaw tumors are common in younger BL patients whereas older children are more likely to present with abdominal tumors similar to those found in the sporadic form of the disease. Whereas bone marrow involvement is frequently found in patients with sporadic BL, it is rarely a feature of endemic BL. Over half of NPC cases present with a cervical mass resulting from lymphoid spread of the primary tumor from its common site of origin in the lateral nasopharynx (fossa of Rosenmuller). Common symptoms resulting from the location of the primary NPC tumor include nasal obstruction and bleeding as well as those due to malfunction of the eustachian tube such as ear blockage, otitis media and conductive hearing loss. Lymphomas in patients with immunodeficiency can present at a number of different anatomic sites including the mediastinum, lungs, central nervous system and abdomen. The site of presentation and rate...
Although Streptococcus pyogenes is found in the upper respiratory tract of many people, sometimes (virulent strains or weakened hosts) it causes the disease known as strep throat. In addition to a sore throat, this may lead to tonsillitis, and in some cases ear infections (otitis media). If not treated, some strains produce a toxin leading to damage of small blood vessels, a fever, and a rash, a disease known as scarlet fever. A few strains may produce rheumatic fever, which can lead to heart, kidney, and joint damage.
Laboratory diagnosis of multiple or recurrent bacterial infections (any combination of at least two within 2 years) of the following types septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, bone or joint infection, abscess of an internal organ or body cavity (excluding otitis media or superficial skin or mucosal abscesses) caused by Haemophilus spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae or other pyogenic bacteria. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and or pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia affecting a child younger than 13 years of age
Assess history of chronic otitis media, brain infection, use of ototoxic drugs, rubella or other intrauterine infections (viral), congenital defects of ear or nose, presence of deafness in family members, hypoxemia and increased bilirubin levels in low-birth weight infants.
Once the Salmonella bacterium is ingested, it multiplies rapidly in the mucosal layers of the stomach and small intestine. The greater the number of organisms ingested, the shorter the incubation period typically, incubation is 8 to 48 hours after ingestion of contaminated food or liquid, and symptoms usually last for 3 to 5 days. An inflammatory response in the tissues produces gastroenteritis. The infection may stop there, or the salmonella organisms may travel via the lymph and vascular system throughout the body. The dissemination of organisms produces lesions in other organs or, possibly, sepsis. Systemic lesions may result in appendicitis, peritonitis, otitis media, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, or endocarditis. Symptoms of intermittent fever, chills, anorexia, and weight loss indicate sepsis.
Patients were seen in the outpatient clinic of the P. & A. Kyriakou Children's Hospital in Athens and were eligible for the study if they had a diagnosis of acute otitis media with fever 38 C, otalgia, or irritability, with otoscopic findings of an erythematous bulging and opacified tympanic membrane. To be considered eligible for the study, a parent of each patient had to give his her informed consent. Patients were excluded from the study if they had received any antibiotic treatment during the last 2 weeks before enrollment, had an underlying disease that might affect the pharmacokinetics of the medication or the outcome of the study, had a perforated tympanic membrane or if complication of otitis media was present at the time of enrollment.
Malays drink a decoction of the whole plant that is used to reduce fever. In Indonesia, the juice expressed from the pseudobulbs is used to assuage earache, and a paste of the pseudobulb is applied externally to lower blood pressure and reduce fever. The pharmacological potential of this plant is unexplored. Is the antipyretic and analgesic property of Acriopsis javanica linked to a dopaminergic effect In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the plant is warmed and instilled in the ear to mitigate earache. The pharmacological potential of this orchid is unexplored. Note that an interesting development in Bulbophyllum species, and Orchidaceae in general, is the search for dopaminergic phenanthrene. Orchidaceae are well known to elaborate bibenzyls, phenanthrenes, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes. Such compounds are found in Bulbophyllum vaginatum Reichb., such as 4,6 dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,3,7-triol and 3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxybibenzyl (61). An example of a phenan-threnic dopaminergic...
Considerable amounts of clinical data were available for both clarithromycin and azithromycin, demonstrating their reliable microbiological and clinical efficacy in the treatment of patients with acute otitis media (in which antibiotic concentrations in middle-ear fluid do appear to be adequate), acute sinusitis, bronchitis, and lower respiratory tract infection in children. Clearly, H. influenzae is not the only or even the most common pathogen in these conditions, but the overall good results imply that these macrolides are generally effective for this organism as well as the others. However, we
Biofilm, as a matter of fact, is involved in acute and chronic infectious diseases and has been described in human and experimental pathology such as native valve endocarditis, otitis media, bacterial chronic rhinosinusitis, COPD, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis, dental caries, biliary tract infections, Legionnaire's disease and amyloidosis.
Complications of acute measles are relatively rare, and result mainly from opportunistic secondary infection of necrotic surfaces such as those in the respiratory tract. Bacteria and other viruses can invade to cause pneumonia or other complications such as otitis media and bronchitis. The most severe complications caused directly by measles virus are giant cell pneumonia and subacute measles encephalitis, both of which occur in the immunocompromised patient as well as acute measles encephalitis and SSPE in which no underlying susceptibility factor has been Pneumonia, bronchitis, otitis media Measles encephalitis (AME) Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
Otitis media, the most common cause of antibiotic prescription in the United States, is an infection of the middle ear that can occur in several forms. Acute otitis media (AOM) is a suppurative (pus-forming) effusion of the middle ear with acute onset, presence of middle ear effusion (MEE), and signs of middle ear inflammation. Bullous myringitis is AOM that leads to bullae formation between the middle and the inner layers of the tympanic membrane. Persistent otitis media occurs when an acute infection does not resolve after 4 weeks of treatment. Recurrent otitis media occurs in children with three separate bouts of AOM within a 6-month period, six within a 12-month period, or six episodes by 6 years of age. Ostitis media is common, and at least half of children have their first epidose prior to their first birthday.
Auditory disorders are classified as conductive, sensorineural or mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Causes include damage to the inner ear structures or the auditory nerve from congenital defects, infection, ototoxic drugs, long-term excessive exposure to noises (sensorineural) or middle ear infection such as otitis media (conductive).
Infants with perinatal acquired AIDS are normal at birth but may develop symptoms within the first 18 months of life. Clinical manifestations in children include fever decreased CD4 count anemia decreased WBC count (less than 3,000 cells mm3) neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count of less than 1,500 cells mm3) thrombocytopenia myelosuppression vitamin K deficiency hepatitis pancreatitis stomatitis and esophagitis meningitis retinitis (common with low CD4 counts) otitis media and sinusitis (chronic or recurrent) lymphadenopathy hepatosplenomegaly recurrent bacterial infections (especially, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae) Mycobacterium infections (MAC) or tuberculosis cytomegalovirus (CMV) failure to thrive (in infants) chronic diarrhea neurologic involvement, (developmental delays and microcephaly in infants, or loss of motor skills in the older child) and pulmonary infections (Pneumocystis carinii PCP , lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis LIP , and pulmonary...
Paroxysmal deep ear pain with a trigger point in the ear of unknown etiology. It may be related to varicella zoster virus infection Continuous pain in the first and second divisions of cranial nerve V, with associated sensory loss, deafness, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. It particularly affects patients with inflammatory lesions in the region of the petrous apex after otitis media
It is said that a preparation of MULLEIN flowers in olive oil, made for earache (see EARACHE), can be used to cure children of bed-wetting. The dose would be a few drops in warm water (Genders. 1976). HORSETAIL tea, being rich in silicic acid, can be used for urinary problems, including bed-wetting (M Evans). Alabama children were given a tea made from the berries of THREE-LEAF SUMACH to cure them of bed-wetting, and PUMPKIN seeds were also used there for the same purpose (R B Browne). This is strange, because the same tea is known as an efficient diuretic. Similarly, DANDELION, the best known of all diuretics, the recipient of vernacular names like Pissabed, was also used to stop the misfortune. The flowers were given to Fenland children to smell on May Day to inhibit bed-wetting for the next twelve months (Porter. 1969). Perhaps these are examples of homeopathic magic. An infusion of ST JOHN'S WORT also was used. In Russian folk medicine, CENTAURY and St John's Wort were mixed in...
Single-dose therapies for treatment of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and chancroid have been studied and published, as has the activity of azithromycin in the eradication of trachoma (12-15). Trials are underway looking at singledose treatments of otitis media and shigellosis. Based on pharmacokinetic modeling, there is reason to believe that in addition to higher peak levels, the delivery of drug in shorter courses may provide a greater area under the plasma concentration versus time curve as well, possibly providing enhanced activity compared to similar total doses given over longer periods of time. These shorter courses of therapy must be studied carefully, however, as the inflammatory component of many infectious diseases and the symptoms that come with them may continue beyond the first 24 h of therapy.
(Euphorbia ingens) This is a tree-like spurge from central Africa. The latex becomes sticky when partially dry, and is used as bird lime. It is said to be poisonous, and can cause skin irritation and blistering. It has been used for homicidal purposes, too, in which case the milk would be evaporated to dryness, and the residue carefully collected and put in beer or food, which is then offered to the victim (Palgrave). The Zulus use it in very small doses as a drastic purgative, and the Sotho administer the latex as a cure for dipsomania, and also use the plant in some way as a cancer remedy. Shona witch doctors use a medicine involving the candelabra tree to treat boils. Another way to do it is to mix a certain snail shell with the milky sap, and apply that to the boil. An earache remedy is to crush a certain caterpillar with the roots of this plant in a cloth, and express the resultant fluid through the cloth into the patient's ear (Gelfand).
BAY leaves, or rather the juice pressed out of them, is a remedy for for pain in the eares, and deafnesse, if it be dropped in with old wine and oile of Roses (Evelyn). Lupton agreed, for it doth not permit deafness, not other strange sounds to abide in the ear . Squeezing HOUSELEEK juice into the ear is a famous earache remedy, but it is also claimed to be a cure for deafness, and it formed part of a Welsh prescription. The Physicians of Myddfai had a cure that involved rams' urine, the oil of eels, the houseleek, and the juice of traveller's joy Old Man's Beard , and a boiled egg. Let him mix and drop into the ear little by little, and it will cure him .
Assess for presence of associated symptoms diarrhea, fever, ear pain, UGI symptoms, vision changes, headache, seizures, high pitched cry, polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, anorexia, and so forth record intake and output, including all body fluid losses, IVs and oral fluids (specify frequency).
Drainage from the confluence of sinuses (secondary to otitis media and mastoiditis) Pain, especially behind the ear (coinciding with acute or chronic otitis or mastoiditis) Increased intracranial pressure Extension ofinfection into the veins draining the lateral surface of the hemisphere may cause the following Jacksonian seizures Hemiplegia Gradenigo's syndrome CNs IX, X, XI (jugular foramen distension)
Self-injurious behavior is the product of a genetic disorder where severe self-injury is characteristic of the disorder. A complex motor tic, such as the self-slapping or skin picking associated with Tourette's syndrome, is another example of a genetic disorder that may involve self-injury. Self-injurious behavior may also be the product of a nongenetic physical disorder such as epilepsy (Gedye, 1989), otitis media,
Alexander Project, lower respiratory tract infection, macro ides and,523-27 Alfentanil, effect of macrolides on, 186 Amoxicillin, vs. azithromycin, for otitis sub-MIC effects, 28,29t salmonellosis, 270 Azithromycin, 13-16 vs. amoxicillin, for otitis media, 597601 pediatric, 132-43 compliance, in children, 649-55 otitis media, in children, 593-96 pertussis, in children, 651 respiratory tract infection, in children, 645-48 peptic ulcer disease, 81-83, 82831 prophylaxis, 196-97 azithromycin, 196-97 clarithromycin, 196 treatment, 197-99 clarithromycin, 197-99 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 191 pneumonia, 200, 200t toxoplasmosis, 192-94,193t Otitis media, 591-601 azithromycin, vs. amoxicillin for, 597-601 Pasteurella species, streptogramins, 60 Pediatrics azithromycin, 132-43 vs. josamycin, lower respiratory tract infections, 656-59 Chlamydia pneumoniae, azithromycin, 330-34 clarithromycin, 132-43 compliance, 649-55 erythromycin, 132-43 macrolides, 131-43 otitis media, clarithromycin,...
But the fruit has got genuine medicinal value. It is astringent, and was listed as such in the US Pharmacopeia for a while (Weiner), though the Cherokee Indians had been using a boiled fruit decoction for diarrhoea a long time before that. Southern states domestic medicine used the sap quite a lot. For teething, the juice from a burned branch was put on the gums, and the same procedure was used for earache just let the sap drop in a spoon, and then drop this sap into the ear. It was used for thrush, too - stew persimmon bark, mix with honey, and wash the mouth with the juice. Sometimes a small piece of alum would be added in the cooking (R B Browne). Then there is a real oddity if you have a tootheche, walk round a persimmon tree, and don't think about an opossum, and the tooth will get well. It is a humorous cure, for opossums are nearly always associated with this tree (R B Browne).
Most men say that the leaves (of YARROW) chewed, and especially greene, are a remedy for the Toothache (Gerard), something that was well known in Saxon times, for Cockayne has, from Apuleius Herbarium, for toothache, take a root, give to eat, fasting . An old Irish remedy advised the patient to chew the leaves (Moloney). The Salish Indians of Vancouver Island agreed. They just hold a leaf in the mouth to stop the pain (Turner & Bell), and in southern Malawi, the roots and leaves of CHINESE LANTERN (Dichrostachys glomerata) are used as a toothache cure (Palgrave). Yarrow's close relative, SNEEZEWORT, was also used, as a native substitute for Pellitory-of-Spain, just chewing a leaf and holding it in the mouth, or by mixing the juice with vinegar and holding that in the mouth (Gerard), who also suggested a mouthwash made from the decoction of BEE BALM. Putting TOBACCO on the tooth was quite a common remedy, just as putting it in the ear would stop earache (Newman & Wilson), while an...
In OE came to mean spear, and aesc-plega the game of spears, or battle. Then it was further extended to the man who carried the spear. The handles of most garden tools are best made of the wood - some rakes are still made entirely of ash (Freethy). Clothes posts, billiard cues (Wilkinson), hockey and hurley sticks, cricket bat handles and police truncheons were all traditionally made of ash timber. It was tough enough for windmill cogwheels, and boats also were made of it - OE aesc, Norse aske came to mean a vessel as well as a spear. In ancient Wales and Ireland all oars and coracle-slats were made of it (Graves). Evelyn mentions that the inner bark was used as paper, before the invention of the latter, and he also mentions that the keys are edible, and often pickled - being pickled tender, they afford a delicate sallading Sir Robert Atkyns, a number of years later, spoke of them as an excellent wholesome sauce, and a great expel-ler of venom . Recipes are still given a recent one...
Ramsay-Hunt syndrome The classic description includes the following triad of findings (1) zoster lesions on the pinna (see Photo 16), meatus, and canal or tympanic membrane of one ear, (2) severe ear pain, and (3) an ipsilateral facial nerve palsy (see Photo 17). Vestibular symptoms and sensorineural hearing loss may also occur. The facial paralysis is usually complete and the recovery rate is low. Taste and lacrimation may also be affected.
Orkney, particularly to prevent a boil coming to a head, in other words to allay inflammation and swelling (Leask). That poultice was used in Scotland for gumboils (Gibson. 1959). Warty eruptions were dealt with by using bunches of camomile, according to an old leechdom (Cockayne), and the flowers were used in an old treatment for deafness, the recipe telling the patient to take camomile and seethe it in a pot, and put it in the ear that is deaf, and wash the ear and so do for four days or five, and he shall be whole (Dawson. 1934). Something similar used to be the custom in Wiltshire domestic medicine for earache. People made a flannel bag, and filled it with camomile heads. This was warmed by the fire and held against the ear (Wiltshire). One of the most engaging of all these prescriptions was the way Wiltshire mothers were advised to deal with fractious children - the flowers, picked when the sun was on them, dried in the sun and kept in a close stoppered jar for use when needed. A...
Besides the medicinal uses that stem from its magical, protective qualities, houseleek has been used for more rational purposes. Herbalists still use it, for example, for eye- and ear-drops (Conway), the latter an old Cotswold remedy - squeezing houseleek juice, sometimes mixed with cream, into the ears to cure earache has been known for a very long time (Briggs. 1974 Helias). The medieval Welsh medical text known as the Physicians of Myddfai prescribed it for deafness. Take ram's urine, the oil of eels, the house leek, and the juice of traveller's joy Clematis vitalba , and a boiled egg. Let him mix and drop into the ear little by little, and it will cure him . Bathing sore eyes with the juice is well known in Ireland (P Logan. 1972), and in Wessex (Rogers). Gerard knew all about this, for he recommended the juice to cool the inflammation of the eyes, beng dropped therein, and the herb bruised and layd upon them . Sore lips could be treated with it, too there is a Lincolnshire cure...
Most men say that the leaves, chewed, and especially greene, are a remedy for the Tooth-ache (Gerard), something that was known well in Anglo-Saxon times, for Cockayne has, from Apuleius Herbarium, for toothache, take a root, give it to eat, fasting . An old Irish remedy for toothache advised the patient to chew the leaves (Moloney). The American Indians used a preparation for earache (Sanford) the Winnebago, for example, steeped the whole plant, and poured the resulting liquid into the ear (Weiner).
Skin diseases have long been treated with walnut leaves in one form or another. In parts of America they say that ringworm can be cured by rubbing it with green walnuts (Sackett & Koch Stout). The Pennsylvania Germans do the same to get rid of a wart, and then the nut has to be buried under the eaves (Fogel). But the leaves are strongly astringent anyway, and have been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, including earache (Dyer. 1889), and even toothache, by binding on to the cheek (a practice that could certainly harm one's face).
Fenland midwives used to give a pain-killing cake to women in labour. It was made from wholemeal flour, hemp-seed crushed with a rolling pin, crushed rhubarb root, and grated dandelion root. These were mixed to a batter with egg-yolk, milk and gin, turned into a tin, and baked in a hot oven. At the woman's first groan, a slice of the cake would be handed to her (Porter. 1969). Rhubarb roots boiled in a little water is an Irish (County Cavan) diarrhoea remedy (Maloney), and a root preparation is used to strengthen nails. Distilled water of rhubarb was recommended to remove scabs, to relieve earache, and as a gargle for sore throats. The seeds are supposed to ease stomach pains (Addison. 1985). You can cure a headache by applying a rhubarb leaf to the forehead (V G Hatfield. 1994), but one suspects that any large leaf would do (a cabbage leaf is certainly used so). It merely provides a cooling application. Rhubarb juice on a wart will cure it (Stout).
Patients with perennial or seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis may have injected conjunctivae (visible small blood vessels), erythematous conjunctivae (reddened whites of eyes), puffy eyelids, and erythematous, oedematous nasal mucosa (the lining of the nose appearing swollen and red). Studies investigating any link between food allergy and otitis media with effusion (sometimes termed glue ear - long-standing fluid in the middle ear resulting in, albeit temporary, conductive hearing loss) have been poorly conducted.18 To date, there is no good evidence linking this condition with food allergy.
Evidently, all that had to be done was to boil the plant in water, and drink the resulting liquid (Vickery. 1995), though a Suffolk practice of curing toothache by tying feverfew on to the wrist on the opposite side (V G Hatfield) sounds more like a charm than a remedy. It has been used in cold infusion as a general tonic, and a cold infusion of the flowers as a sedative (Brownlow). Perhaps that was what Gerard had in mind when he recommended it for such as be melancholicke, sad, pensive, and without speech. It is certainly effective in curing a headache, even migraine, it seems (V G Hatfield), and apparently, it was said, warm, on the ear for earache, according to a Suffolk record (Kightly. 1984). But the dried flowers have been used in home remedies in Europe to induce abortion (Lewis & Elvin-Lewis).
Liberia, who recognize it as an accessory green food, specially prescribed for malnutrition (Harley). There are a number of other medicinal uses throughout the world. The Navajo use the green plant for stomach ache (Elmore), and the Mano too recognize it as an indigestion remedy (Harley). In Central America, Maya medical texts prescribed the crushed plant, rubbed on the body, for tuberculosis. The juice is given for giddiness, and an infusion is used as a bath for convulsions (Roys). In West Africa it is prescribed for local application to swellings and bruises, or as a poultice for abscesses or boils. The juice is sometimes dropped in the ear for earache, and is also used for toothache. Skin diseases are treated in West Africa, as well as in China, with purslane, but in Ghana they eat the leaves along with tiger nuts as the remedy (Dalziel). The Mano look on it as a sore throat remedy, too. They take a large handful, beaten up with root ginger. It has to be mixed with water from a...
End of the 14th century (Fluckiger & Hanbury). Its main use, in the form of an essential oil, has always been as a carminative. It consumeth winde , Gerard wrote. The prescription appears again in American domestic medicine. Gerard went on with his list of virtues, it helpeth conception and is mixed with counterpoysons There are just as fantastic prescriptions much later than in his day - for earache, as an example - the patient was advised to pound up a hot loaf with a handful of bruised seeds, and clap this to his ear (Fernie). And Culpeper said the seed helpeth to sharpen the Eye-sight , and the seed was used in Tibetan medicine to treat eye diseases (Kletter & Kriechbaum). A Cambridgeshire cough remedy sounds more realistic two ounces of caraway seeds boiled in a quart of water down to a pint, half strain off, sweeten with sugar, add a glass and a half of rum. Take a wineglassful every night on going to bed (Porter.1969)
This is an astringent, useful in diarrhoea and other such ailments (Grieve. 1931), which would include haemorrhages. A Somerset remedy for nosebleed is to rub the plant into the nostrils (Tongue. 1965). It has been used for many other ailments, as recommended by the early herbalists. There is a leechdom from the 15th century for earache, for example, using the juice in the ear, and it shall take away the aching
The tobacco-smoke enema-syringe was a favourite instrument, apparently adopted in Europe from the Central American Indians. Used at first to combat a wide variety of diseases, it was, during the 18th century, even used to resuscitate the apparently drowned, and was still known up to about 1850 (Brongers). Putting tobacco in the ears, or on a tooth, was quite a common earache or toothache remedy (Newman & Wilson). ( Jane Josselin treated herself for toothache with tobacco (Beier)). It was used as a plague protector, too, either by smelling, or by taking it fasting in the morning, provided, that presently after the taking thereof, you drinke a deepe draught of six shilling Beere, and walke after it (F P Wilson).
However, HBO is expensive and logistically cumbersome. It is contraindicated where closed air spaces in the body can cause damage due to expansion upon returning to normal atmospheric pressure, such as sinusitis, otitis media, asthma, and bullous pulmonary disease. Care should be taken with diabetic patients, as hy-poglycemia may be exacerbated by HBO.