During 1999 and 2000, the European Commission (Directorate-General Transport) funded a Roadside Testing Assessment (ROSITA) project in the fourth framework program in eight European countries. A total of nine European Institutes for Legal Medicine and Toxicology and three companies worked together on the five different project targets. The official ROSITA Partners are listed in Table 1 .
The ROSITA study was divided into five working packages, which generally covered the following questions:
1. What are the drugs and medicines that have detrimental impacts on drivers' performance?
2. What are the state-of-the-art roadside testing devices for urine, sweat, and oral-fluid matrices? Are there other tests that can be used at the roadside to evaluate the impairment of drivers?
3. What kind of operational, user, and legal requirements exist across member states of the EU for roadside testing equipment?
4. What are the usability (practicability), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy levels of available roadside test devices?
5. What equipment can be recommended for the use of roadside testing in Europe?
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