The devices that existed at the time of the study for drug testing at the roadside were inventoried (4). As this information is now partially obsolete, only a brief overview of the findings will be given. A total of 19 devices were identified in the market study. Sixteen were designed for the screening of urine samples. These represented 33 brand names on the international market. Of the three devices that were developed for saliva, two were manufactured in Europe. One device could also be applied to sweat.
For urine testing, there are three kinds of test designs: a dip test (test strip or test card; the device is partially immersed in the urine for a few seconds), a pipet test (test cassette; a few drops of urine are deposited in the device with a dropper), and a cup test (the testing device is built into the side or top of a cup). Several manufacturers supplied single-parameter and multiple-parameter tests for the dip- and pipet-type devices. Most of the tests were available for the detection of amphetamines, methamphetamine, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine. Eighty percent of the urine devices also included benzodiazepines and barbiturates in their panels. Fifty percent included methadone, and only 30% offered a test for tricyclic antidepressants.
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