S Q E

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time after Administration in h

Fig. 6. Concentration curve of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in saliva measured with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and with Drugwipe®/ DrugRead® after a controlled oral administration of 100 mg MDMA.

2.3. Drugwipe Amphetamines: Sweat vs Saliva in a Driver Population

In the winter of 2003, Drugwipe Amphetamine was evaluated by the Institute for Legal Medicine at the University of Munich, Germany, for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Traffic police in Munich selected drivers from the street who were suspected of DUID. Drivers were brought to the Institute for Legal Medicine for blood samples. At the same time, sweat from the forehead and from inside the palm, as well as saliva, were collected with the Drugwipe device. All Drugwipe tests were administered on a voluntary basis. All volunteers were tested three times (one saliva test and two sweat tests). In the final analysis, Drugwipe test results were correlated to those of the blood samples.

Table 3 summarizes the results of this comparative study with Drugwipe Amphetamines. Accuracy in the context of this study describes how reliable Drugwipe Amphetamines is in predicting the blood results of a suspected driver. Sensitivity refers to the percentage of positive blood samples, and specificity the percentage of negative blood samples corrected identified by Drug-wipe. Between 76 and 80 persons were tested with Drugwipe and approx 30% were tested positive in the blood for amphetamines or ecstasy. Seventy percent were amphetamine free. The accuracy of Drugwipe Amphetamines was in the range of 92 to 97% depending on the specimen and the sampling location on the body. Specificity ranged between 89 and 96%, whereas sensitivity was always 100%. It was also noted that the best accuracy and specificity were achieved with sweat samples from inside the palm of the hand. Saliva samples and sweat

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time after Administration in h

Fig. 6. Concentration curve of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in saliva measured with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and with Drugwipe®/ DrugRead® after a controlled oral administration of 100 mg MDMA.

Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity of the Drugwipe® Results in Relation to the Blood Status of Drivers Suspected for Driving Under the Influence of Drugs

Specimen

Sampling location

Accuracy

Sensitivity

Specificity

Number of cases

Sweat/skin

Forehead

92%

100%

89%

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