Info

Sobriety Success

At Home Drug Withdrawal

Get Instant Access

*Urine test date according to Quest Diagnostics' Drug Testing Index for workplace drug tests performed January to December, 2001 by Quest Diag. (data source can be found at http://www. questdiagnostics.com/business/b_bus_lab_emp_drugtesting_index.html)

*Urine test date according to Quest Diagnostics' Drug Testing Index for workplace drug tests performed January to December, 2001 by Quest Diag. (data source can be found at http://www. questdiagnostics.com/business/b_bus_lab_emp_drugtesting_index.html)

for screening of presumptive positive samples. These presumptive positive samples are then confirmed using a combination of GC and MS. In the early days of drug testing, urinalysis went through a series of changes and modifications until reliable and legally defensible procedures were established. In many ways, oral-fluid testing has followed a similar path, with some exceptions. In oral-fluid testing, significant advances in screening and confirmation technologies have allowed the use of comparatively minute amounts of sample with similarly reliable results. In addition, positive oral-fluid testing can be indicative of a more recent time frame of drug use. It is expected that future technological development will make it possible to correlate oral-fluid testing with drug impairment and not just drug presence, as is currently possible with blood samples (12-16).

References

1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Programs. Fed Regist 1988;53:11,970-11,989.

2. Verstraete A. Roadside Testing Assessment (www.ROSITA.org), 2000.

3. Road Safety (Drug Driving) Act 2003. Parliament of Victoria, Australia, 2003.

4. Malamud D and Tabak L. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993; 694:276-279.

5. Samyn N, Verstraete A, van Haeren C, and Kintz P Analysis of drugs of abuse in saliva. For Sci Rev 1999;11(1):1-19.

6. Mucklow JC., Bending MR, Kahn GC, and Dollery CT. Drug concentration in saliva. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1978;24:563-570.

7. DiGregorio GJ, Piraino A, Nagle B, and Knaiz E. Basic biological sciences— secretion of drugs by the parotid glands of rats and human beings. J Dental Res 1977;56(5):502-50.

8. Niedbala RS, Kardos KW, Fritch, D. F., et al. Detection of marijuana use by oral fluid and urine analysis following single-dose administration of smoked and oral marijuana. J Anal Toxicol 2001;25:289-303.

9. Niedbala RS, Kardos KW, Fries T, and Davis A. Immunoassay for detection of cocaine/metabolites in oral fluids. J Anal Toxicol 2001;25:62-68.

10. Niedbala RS, Kardos K, Waga J, et al. Laboratory analysis of remotely collected oral fluid specimens for opiates by immunoassay. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2001;25:310-315.

11. Cone E, Presley L, Lehrer M, et al. Oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse: positive prevalence rates by Intercept™ immunoassay screening and GC-MS-MS confirmation and suggested cutoff concentrations. J Anal Toxicol 2003;27:169-172/

12. Cone EJ, Kumor K, Thompson LK, and Sherer M. Correlation of saliva cocaine levels with plasma levels and with pharmacologic effects after intravenous cocaine administration in human subjects. J Anal Toxicol 1988; 12, 200-206.

13. Menkes DB, Howard RC, Spears GFS, and Cairns ER. Salivary THC following cannabis smoking correlates with subjective intoxication and heart rate. Psycho-pharmacology 1991;103:277-279.

14. Chait LD and Zacny JP. Reinforcing and subjective effects of oral A9-THC and smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology 1992;107:255-262.

15. O'Neal CL, Crouch DJ, Rollins DE, Fatah A, and Cheever ML. Correlation of saliva codeine concentrations with plasma concentrations after oral codeine administration. J Anal Toxicol 1999;23:452-459.

16. Pitts FN, Allen RE, Aniline O, and Yago LS. Occupational intoxication and long-term persistence of phencyclidine (PCP) in law enforcement personnel. Clin Toxicol 1981;18(9): 1015-1020.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
An Addict's Guide To Freedom

An Addict's Guide To Freedom

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Understanding And Getting Rid Of Addictions. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To New Ways To Understand Addicts And Get Rid Of Addictions.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment