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*Urine test date according to Quest Diagnostics' Drug Testing Index for workplace drug tests performed January to December, 2001 by Quest Diag. (data source can be found at http://www.

*Urine test date according to Quest Diagnostics' Drug Testing Index for workplace drug tests performed January to December, 2001 by Quest Diag. (data source can be found at http://www.

for screening of presumptive positive samples. These presumptive positive samples are then confirmed using a combination of GC and MS. In the early days of drug testing, urinalysis went through a series of changes and modifications until reliable and legally defensible procedures were established. In many ways, oral-fluid testing has followed a similar path, with some exceptions. In oral-fluid testing, significant advances in screening and confirmation technologies have allowed the use of comparatively minute amounts of sample with similarly reliable results. In addition, positive oral-fluid testing can be indicative of a more recent time frame of drug use. It is expected that future technological development will make it possible to correlate oral-fluid testing with drug impairment and not just drug presence, as is currently possible with blood samples (12-16).


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11. Cone E, Presley L, Lehrer M, et al. Oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse: positive prevalence rates by Intercept™ immunoassay screening and GC-MS-MS confirmation and suggested cutoff concentrations. J Anal Toxicol 2003;27:169-172/

12. Cone EJ, Kumor K, Thompson LK, and Sherer M. Correlation of saliva cocaine levels with plasma levels and with pharmacologic effects after intravenous cocaine administration in human subjects. J Anal Toxicol 1988; 12, 200-206.

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14. Chait LD and Zacny JP. Reinforcing and subjective effects of oral A9-THC and smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology 1992;107:255-262.

15. O'Neal CL, Crouch DJ, Rollins DE, Fatah A, and Cheever ML. Correlation of saliva codeine concentrations with plasma concentrations after oral codeine administration. J Anal Toxicol 1999;23:452-459.

16. Pitts FN, Allen RE, Aniline O, and Yago LS. Occupational intoxication and long-term persistence of phencyclidine (PCP) in law enforcement personnel. Clin Toxicol 1981;18(9): 1015-1020.

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