Info

MDMA, methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDA, methylenedioxyamphetamine.

MDMA, methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDA, methylenedioxyamphetamine.

different days. Each meal consisted of dishes favored by the particular individual. A total of 36 test devices were used and all gave negative results, suggesting that food intake does not give false-positive results.

7.2. Cosmetic and Hygienic Products

Eight volunteers were tested with Oratect 30 min after brushing their teeth. They were again tested 30 min after applying lipstick and 30 min after smoking a cigarette. All 24 tests showed negative results, demonstrating that toothpaste, lipstick, and cigarettes do not interfere with the Oratect results.

7.3. Beverages

Oral fluids from drug-free volunteers were collected and pooled. Aliquots of the pooled oral fluids were each spiked with 10% v/v of the following beverages: (a) Lipton® tea; (b) black coffee; (c) Pepsi® Cola soft drink; (d) Dr. Pepper® soft drink; and (e) reconstituted Minute Maid® orange juice. When these spiked samples were applied to Oratect drug-screen devices, the test results indicated that none of the beverages studied gave false-positive results.

7.4. Food Ingredients

Aliquots of drug-free oral fluids were spiked with: (a) 10% v/v of 1 mg/mL solution of citric acid; (b) sugar with the final concentration of 1 mg/mL; (c) table salt with the final concentration of 1 mg/mL; and (d) monosodium glutamate with the final concentration of 1 mg/mL. When these spiked samples were applied to Oratect drug-screen devices, the results were all negative.

8. OratectPlus™: Expansion to Test for Alcohol

By incorporating into the Oratect device a dry reagent pad that accommodates the enzymatic reaction of alcohol oxidase and peroxidase, simultaneous determination of abused drugs and alcohol can be undertaken. This new configuration (Fig. 3), called the OratectPlus™ (9), uses the same procedure as the regular Oratect device except that the alcohol pad is read 2 min after the pink-purple flow appears in the test windows. The reported cut-off level was 0.04% blood-alcohol concentration, and the OratectPlus test results correlated well with an onsite alcohol test—AlcoScreen™ (Chematics, Inc. North Webster, IN).

9. Conclusions

The Oratect device has a simple design and an easy procedure for collection, testing, and confirmation sampling. Data presented here suggest that it

Fig. 3. OratectPlus® detecting abused drug and alcohol simultaneously.

can perform well and is a viable alternative to urine drug screen. To further the utility of the Oratect device platform, an alcohol pad has been incorporated so that drugs and alcohol can be detected simultaneously with the device. Such a development would further expand the use of Oratect.

References

1. Huestis MA and Cone EJ. Alternative testing matrices, in Drug Abuse Handbook (Karch SB, ed), CRC, Boca Raton, FL: 1998; 799-813.

2. Caplan Y and Goldberger B. Alternative specimens for workplace drug testing. J Anal Toxicol 2001;25:396-399.

3. Wong R. The current status of drug testing in the U.S. workforce. American Clinical Laboratory 2002;21, 21-23.

4. Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs, April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644).

5. Wong B, Wong R, Fan P, and Tran M. Detection of abused drugs in oral fluid by an on-site one-step drug screen—Oratect™. Clin Chem 2003;49:A125.

6. Wong R, Wong B, and Tran C. Opiate time course study with Oratect™. Presented at the 41st International Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Toxi-cologists, Melbourne, November 2003.

7. Huestis MA and Cone EJ. Relationship of 89-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in oral fluid and plasma after controlled administration of smoked cannabis. J Anal Toxicol 2004;28:394-399.

8. Wong R, Wong B, Tran C, and Fan P. Detection of benzodiazepines by a one step onsite oral fluid rapid drug screen—Oratect™. Presented at the 41st International Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Toxicologists, Melbourne, 2003.

9. Wong R, Sook J, and Zolteck R. Alcohol testing by an onsite one-step oral fluid alcohol and drug combination test device—OratectPlus™. Presented at TIAFT/ SOFT Joint Congress, Washington, DC, September 2004.

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