Glutaraldehyde has also been used as an adulterant to mask urine drug tests (18). This product is available under the trade name of UrinAid. Each kit contains 4-5 mL solution of glutaraldehyde, which is to be added to 50-60 mL of urine.
Glutaraldehyde solutions are readily available in hospitals and clinics as a cleaning and sterilizing agent. A 10% solution of glutaraldehyde is also available from pharmacies as over-the-counter medication for treatment of warts. The addition of glutaraldehyde at a concentration of 0.75% volume to urine can lead to false-negative drug-screening results for cannabinoid tests using EMIT II immunoassays. Amphetamine, methadone, benzodiazepine, opiate, and cocaine metabolite tests can be affected at glutaraldehyde concentrations of between 1 and 2% using the EMIT screen. At a glutaraldehyde concentration of 2% by volume, Braith-waite (18) found that the assay of cocaine metabolite was significantly affected, with an apparent loss of 90% of assay sensitivity. A loss of 80% sensitivity was also observed with the benzodiazepine assay. Wu et al. (19) reported that glutaraldehyde also interfered with the CEDIA immunoassays for screening of abused drugs. Goldberger and Caplan (20) reported that glutaraldehyde caused false-negative results with EMIT but also caused false-positive phencyclidine results with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories) and the kinetic interaction of microparticles in a solution immunoassay (KIMS®, Roche Diagnostics); the Roche RIA assay was least affected.
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