Field Evaluation of Roadside Test Devices

3.4.1. Study Methods

In this part of the study, 11 on-site urine-test devices, 3 oral-fluid test devices, and 1 sweat-test device were tested in 2968 drivers, and positive and negative results were compared with those obtained by the reference methods as well as those in blood samples assessed by the same reference methods (6). The reference methods referred to in this study are mostly gas chromatogra-phy(GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) or, in some cases, high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) or GC with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) (see Chapter 3). The number of subjects involved in each category and the drugs tested are given in Table 2.

Because of different legislation, the circumstances under which the tests were performed varied among the countries:

• Belgium: samples collected at the roadside were first screened by police with the Dipro Drugscreen 5 (Dipro Diagnostics) device and then by lab technicians with the other devices.

• Finland: urine was collected under police supervision in the hospital and not at the roadside. Police and laboratory staff performed the urine tests at the laboratory. Oral-fluid tests were performed at the roadside by trained police officers.

• France: on-site tests were evaluated in the laboratory.

• Germany: the tests were performed by police officers during police patrols. Oral-fluid and sweat samples were collected and tested directly at the roadside, whereas urine samples were normally collected and tested at police stations or at public lavatories. Patrols were conducted during the night, rendering reading of the results more difficult than in a police station, hospital, or laboratory.

• Italy: on-site tests were performed at the roadside by police personnel or ambulance volunteers, or in the laboratory by trained technicians. Roadside collection of blood, urine, and oral-fluid samples were made by medical personnel.

• Norway: on-site urine tests were performed by the police officers in the laboratory at the National Institute for Forensic Toxicology, in collaboration with

Table 2

Overview of the Methodological Aspects of the Roadside Testing Assessment (ROSITA) Field Tests

Table 2

Overview of the Methodological Aspects of the Roadside Testing Assessment (ROSITA) Field Tests

Countries

Number of subjects

Specimens collected

Number of on-site test devices evaluated in urine/oral fluid/sweat

Place of tests

Personnel performing tests

Belgium

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