In Europe today, routinely tested DOA are shown in Table 1. In a typical screening assay, it is quite common to see combinations of these drugs being tested. At roadside screening, it has been reported that cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines (including methamphetamines), and benzodiazepines represent the most regularly tested DOA (6,7). Codeine, cotinine, salicylate, and tricyclic antidepressants may also be present in test panels. Phencyclidine (PCP), regularly included in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)-5 panel of drugs in the United States, is rarely included in European DATs, especially on the POC format. Commonly abused in the United States, PCP is consumed at much lower levels in Europe.
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) recently reported that opiates are the class of drugs for which most people seek treatment (8). In methadone clinics, the main drug being tested is heroin, as opposed to the less harmful substitute of methadone. In rehabilitation centers, POC assays also mainly test for heroin.
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