Blood tests generally exhibit the best correlation with drug intoxication and impairment (6,7). In the complex European field of litigation, results from blood tests are often the only ones that are acceptable in a court of law. Consequently, it is likely that the demand for blood tests will remain high. In contrast with urine and other matrices, there is a legal requirement in many countries for a medically qualified person to oversee the collection of blood samples. In Germany and Italy, both urine and blood samples are required when people are suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. This situation highlights the impracticality associated with blood testing. Highly invasive, time-consuming, and expensive, the analysis of blood is almost exclusively performed in the laboratory, in specialized toxicology facilities.
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