Historically, in the laboratory-centric model, drug testing has been an open information system. The MRO receives laboratory data when then lab completes the specimen testing. The MRO doesn't know what they will be receiving until they receive it. The same is true for the laboratory. The laboratory receives samples each day sent from the collection site, not knowing what they will be receiving. There is no feedback loop in an open system, and the result is a lack of anticipated information and an arduous task of tracking missing specimens or results, starting at the end of process and moving forward until the problem has been identified.
In the eScreen closed-loop information model, each of the parties to the transaction communicates via the Web to a common server. The donor, employer, collector, eReader, laboratory, and MRO each have access to the drug-test record in real time. Any party can access their respective portion of the record, sharing common file elements. Pre-accession data elements are available to downstream service providers. Clients and upstream service providers can track the progress of the record as it moves through the system.
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