Amitava Dasgupta

Persons abusing drugs attempt to adulterate urine specimens in order to beat drug testing. Dilution of urine in vivo by consuming excess fluid and various detoxifying agents available through the Internet is a common practice. Household chemicals such as bleach, acid, table salt, laundry detergent, toilet-bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice, and Visine (Pfizer) eye drops are also used for adulterating urine specimens. Most of these adulterants except Visine eye drops can be detected by routine...

References

Armbruster DA, Schwarzhoff RH, Pierce BL, and Hubster EC. Method comparison of EMIT II and ONLINE with RIA for drug screening. J Forensic Sci 1993 38 1326-1341. 2. Armbruster DA, Schwarzhoff RH, Hubster EC, and Liserio MK. Enzyme immuno-assay, kinetic microparticle immunoassay, radioimmunoassay, and fluorescence polarization immunoassay compared for drugs-of-abuse screening. Clin Chem 1993 39 2137-2146. 3. Armbruster DA, Hubster EC, Kaufman MS, and Ramon MK. Cloned enzyme donor immunoassay...

Sample Adulteration in Urine DOA Testing

The instant DOA testing procedures are instituted, opposing forces are at work to develop methods to avoid detection of drug use. Initially, common household chemicals such as laundry bleach, table salt, toilet-bowl cleaner, hand soap, and vinegar were used. More recently, a variety of products became commercially available, which can be ordered through Internet sites and tollfree telephone numbers. Commercially available adulteration products can be classified into two broad categories. The...

Adulteration of Hair and Saliva Specimens for Drug Testing

Hair and saliva specimens are alternatives to urine specimens for drug testing (see Chapter 11). Several products available through the Internet claim that washing hair with their shampoos can help pass a drug test. Clear Choice Hair Follicle Shampoo claims to remove all residues and toxins within 10 min of use. One application is sufficient for shoulder-length hair, and the effect can last for 8 h. Root Clean hair-cleansing system shampoo has also been commercially available. However, no...

Raphael C Wong

Oral fluids have been generating increased interest as a matrix for abused drug testing. The present chapter describes an oral-fluid on-site detection device, Oratect , which screens for six drugs simultaneously. Oratect integrates collection, testing, and confirmation sampling into a single device. The collection process is simple, and test results can be obtained within 5 to 6 min. The data collected so far suggest that it is a viable screening test. Recently, the testing has been extended to...

Household Chemicals as Urine Adulterants

Simple household chemicals are found to be effective adulterants of urine drug tests. These include table salt, vinegar, liquid laundry bleach, concentrated lemon juice, and Visine eye drops (8,9). The effectiveness of these chemicals on specific drug tests is summarized below. Amphetamines sodium chloride at a concentration of 75 gm L of urine caused a false-negative drug test in a urine specimen containing 1420 ng mL of amphetamine. Similarly, Drano (bleach SC Johnson & Son) at a...

The Results of the Roadside Drug Testing Assessment Project

The 21-mo Roadside Testing Assessment (ROSITA) project started in January 1999 and included a literature survey of drugs and medicines that have detrimental impacts on road users' performance, an inventory of the available roadside drug-testing equipment for urine, oral fluid, and sweat, an evaluation of the operational, user, and legal requirements for roadside testing equipment in the different European Union countries, and an extensive evaluation of several devices in eight countries....

The eScreen System

In view of the deficiencies associated with the conventional POCT and the perception that a digital drug test could be created, a system known as eScreen was developed. eScreen combines the benefits of point-of-collection specimen collection with recent advances in information technologies to create an instrumented POCT system. eScreen monitored the progress of LFDOA development closely. LFDOA clearly led the market as the analytical method of choice. Easy-to-use, low-cost, highly sensitive...

Other Specimens

A wide variety of additional body specimens have been analyzed for drugs of abuse. These are not widely used, but a few will be addressed briefly. Meconium is a newborn's first stool. It is formed over the last trimester of pregnancy, and thus can represent exposure to drugs over 16-20 wk prepar-tum. Meconium is collected from the neonate's diaper and extracted with solvents. The extract is then analyzed by conventional immunoassay and GC-MS techniques (57). Drugs and alcohol have also been...

Diluted Urine A Simple Way to Beat Drug Tests

A negative result for the presence of abused drugs in a urine specimen does not necessarily mean that no drug is present. It is also possible that the amount of drug was below the cut-off values used in the drug-testing protocol. Diluting urine is a simple way to beat an otherwise positive drug test if the original concentrations of drugs in the urine are just slightly above the cut-off values. To counteract this strategy, creatinine analysis in urine is an effective method to detect diluted...

Glutaraldehyde As a Urine Adulterant

Glutaraldehyde has also been used as an adulterant to mask urine drug tests 18 . This product is available under the trade name of UrinAid. Each kit contains 4-5 mL solution of glutaraldehyde, which is to be added to 50-60 mL of urine. Glutaraldehyde solutions are readily available in hospitals and clinics as a cleaning and sterilizing agent. A 10 solution of glutaraldehyde is also available from pharmacies as over-the-counter medication for treatment of warts. The addition of glutaraldehyde at...

The eScreen123 Software Runs the eScreen System

The eScreen system consists of a suite of hardware installed at the point of collection. The hardware suite consists of a Windows PC, monitor, eReader Fig. 2 , signature capture device, barcode reader, and laser printer. The PC is connected to the Internet, preferably via a broadband connection, and runs the eScreen123 eScreen software platform. The eScreen123 Fig. 3 software is a Web-based application allowing each of the service providers e.g., the collection site, laboratory, MRO, and...