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Tulane University Health Sciences Center Repetitive DNA Elements Joellen M. Schildkraut Duke University Medical Center Public Health, Genetic Techniques in Silke Schmidt Duke Center for Human Genetics Meiosis Mitosis David A. Scicchitano New York University Ames Test Carcinogens William K. Scott Duke Center for Human Genetics Aging and Life Span Epidemiologist Gene and Environment Gerry Shaw MacKnight Brain Institute of the University of Flordia Signal Transduction Alan R. Shuldiner University...

Maternal Conditions

Birth defects can also result from physical conditions affecting the health of the mother. One common maternal condition associated with birth defects is diabetes mellitus, a multifactorial disorder. Mothers with diabetes have a two- to three-fold times greater risk of having a child with birth defects than the general population if their condition is not well controlled. However, good glucose control has been shown to correlate with a decreased risk of congenital malformations. Characteristic...

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Most common of the genetic beta cell defects are the disorders known as MODY, or maturity onset diabetes of the young. MODY constitutes no more than 2 percent to 5 percent of all cases of diabetes. It often occurs in children and young adults and is characterized by decreased but not absent insulin production. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, which means that an affected person has a 50 percent chance of passing on the disease-version of the gene with each pregnancy. Most, but...

The Molecular Genetics of ADHD

Molecular genetic studies have already implicated several genes as mediating the susceptibility to ADHD. Researchers have examined candidate genes in dopamine pathways because animal models, theoretical considerations, and the effectiveness of stimulant treatment implicate dopaminergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Dopamine is a neural trans- D4 dopamine receptor j dopamine transporter Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain and is used in neural pathways involved in...

Genetic Testing and Alzheimers Disease

DNA testing can be performed to determine whether an individual has a mutation in one of the causative genes and or whether he or she carries one or two copies of the APOEe4 susceptibility gene. Whether to test and which test to perform will depend on three conditions family history of dementia, age of onset of disease, and clinical status of the individual. If a person has dementia, the test result could be useful in determining that the cause of the dementia is a form of AD. If a person has...

Antibiotic Resistance

From the human perspective, one of the significant consequences of a bacterium's ability to pass genetic information along to other cells via conjugation is its link to the widespread incidence of antibiotic resistance. The genes that encode for resistance to a variety of antibiotics like penicillin and tetracycline are commonly found on plasmids. When a population of susceptible bacteria is exposed to a given antibiotic, most of them will be killed. However, if the population contains cells...