The quantitative description of dose-response relationships can be approached from a scientific basis by the application of principles of clinical pharmacology. These recognize the central role of concentration as the explanatory variable linking dose to effect. It is not necessary to measure concentrations or develop a formal pharmacokinetic model in order to describe the effects of drugs (Holford and Peace, 1992; Pillai et al., 2004), but recognition of the separate contributions of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic sources of variability is important for accurate description and informative predictions.

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