Venetian Sumach

(Cotinus coggyria) Probably better known in Britain as Smoke Tree, a good descriptive name. This plant provides a dyestuff, so it is sometimes referred to as Young Fustic, "young", to distinguish it from Old Fustic, which is Chlorophora tinctoria. It is the wood, reddish-orange in colour, that is the source of a yellow dyestuff, hardly ever used now, as the dye is hardly permanent at all (Leggett). However, with the proper mordant, it can dye cotton and wool bright yellow through to brown or dark olive. With logwood, it can produce black.

Veratrum album > WHITE HELLEBORE

Veratrum viride > AMERICAN WHITE HELLEBORE

Verbascum thapsus > MULLEIN Verbena officinalis > VERVAIN VERJUICE

A very sour liquid extracted from crabapples, quite popular in the English countryside in the 19th century, but used for veterinary practice long before that. Tusser, for instance, advised the husbandman:

Of vergis be sure Poore cattel to cure.

It is described in Tusser Redivivus as being "for Strength and Flavour ... little short, if not exceeds Lime juice". It was also used for curdling milk, and for treating sprains (tart, vinegary cider was still being used as a fomentation for muscular sprains in the first half of the 20th century (Savage).

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