Tobacco was not the only herb taken as snuff, and there were many cheap substitutes at one time, the powdered leaves of SNEEZEWORT (Achillea ptarmica) being one of them (Coats. 1968). The American plant SNEEZEWEED (Helenium autumnale) was used as snuff by some of the American Indian peoples. The almost mature flower heads would be dried, and hung up somewhere to be used as necessary. When wanted for use they were pulverized and taken as snuff. It makes one sneeze violently several times, and so is used to loosen up a cold (H H Smith. 1923/1928). The dried and powdered rhizome of SWEET FLAG has been used in snuff - the French 'snuff á la violette' apparently contains some of it (Barton & Castle). CAMOMILE was popular in Elizabethan times as the principal ingredient (along with ground ivy and pellitory-of-the-wall) in snuffs (Genders. 1972). Dried BASIL leaves can be taken as snuff, but this is to get rid of a headache, or a head-cold (Hemphill). Many early snuffs contained GROUND IVY, especially during Elizabethan times (Genders. 1972).

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