BUCKTHORN berries, boiled with alum, provide Sap Green, and when mixed with lime-water and gum arabic, Bladder Green (Grigson. 1955). As Gerard said, "there is pressed forth of the ripe berries a juyce, which being boyled with a little Alum is used of painters for a deepe greene, which they call Sao-greene ...". WOAD supplied a blue pigment used by artists, especially in the illumination of missals. It was got from the scum that floated on the surface of the vat, known as the "flower" of woad, or "flory". It was used by Italian artists from the 13th to the 16th centuries. Evidently, there were two shades of blue that could be got, for there was a distinction made between "indigo" and "azure" (Hurry). Lupton gave advice on how "to make a green that will not fade away. Take the flowers of FLEUR-DE-LUCE, stamp them and strain them, then put the juice thereof intogum water, and dry it in the sun".This green colour was known as Verditer, "us'd by the Painters in Miniature" (Pomet).

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