I

Iberis amara see CANDYTUFT IBOGA

(Tabernanthe iboga) A West African shrub, socially important as a hallucinogen. It is said that the discovery of the plant's properties was due to wild pigs. The natives saw that the pigs would dig up the roots, only to go into a wild frenzy (Pope). It is the root bark that contains the hallucinogenic principle, and it is in the Bwiti cult of the Fang people that the shrub becomes important. Bwiti is a cult of the dead, the object being principally to create a satisfactory relationship with the dead; it offers its members the experience (through iboga) of a passage over to the afterlife, and by doing that to come to terms with death itself (Fernandez). The root bark of Iboga, powdered and taken as an infusion, causes an altered state of consciousness (Emboden. 1979). In small doses it acts as a stimulant in much the same way as coca, enabling the user to double the length of a day's march, for example, or, one report claimed, allowing a hunter to sit awake and motionless for as long as two days while waiting for game (Pope). Larger doses, several times larger, produce euphoria, so that the user must "endure intense and unpleasant central stimulation in order to experience the hallucinogen effects" (Pope). Initiates into the Bwiti cult are given a massive dose, said to be 40 to 60 times the normal amount, the object being to effect contact with the ancestors through collapse and hallucination. This can, and sometimes does, cause death. (For a full account of the use of iboga in the Bwiti cult, see FERNANDEZ, J W Tabernanthe iboga: narcotic ecstasis and the work of the ancestors in FURST, P C editor Flesh of the gods New York, Praeger 1972).

Ilex aquifolium > HOLLY

Illicium anisatum > JAPANESE ANISE

Illicium verum > TRUE ANISE

Impatiens capensis > ORANGE BALSAM

Impatiens noli-me-tangere > TOUCH-ME-NOT

Impatiens walleriana > BUSY LIZZIE

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