is the usual name for the fruit of roses. It is OE heope, with a long first vowel that has become short in modern English. The word varies in local use to forms like Heps, widely used, or in northern Scotland, Haps (Britten & Holland), pronounced hawps and written as such sometimes. Hips are called Choops in northern England and Scotland, spelt sometimes Choups or Shoups (Nodal & Milner, Carr). In addition, they are often known as Cat-choops or Dog-choops, with many variations (Watts. 2000).

As far as Dog Rose hips are concerned, they are edible, and " . children with great delight eat the berries thereof when they be ripe, make chaines and other prettie gewgawes of the fruit; cooks and gentlewomen make Tarts and such like dishes for pleasure thereof .; the making whereof I commit to the cunning cooke, and teeth to eat them in the rich man's mouth" (Gerard). Dog Rose hips contain large amounts of Vitamin C, and they were systematically gathered in England during World War 2. They have always been used as a medicine in some way or another. The conserve "is of some efficacie against coughs" (Hill), or a tea made from them was taken for fatigue and dropsy among other complaints (Fluck), including the common cold (Thomson. 1978). They were used, too, for their pulp as an ingredient of pill-making, etc., (Fluckiger & Hanbury, and "to prevent a wound going bad: hips of Dog Rose chewed, then let it drop on the wound" (Cockayne).

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