(Anadenanthera peregrina) A South American plant, particularly in the Orinoco basin. A snuff, usually known as yopo, or partica, made from the powdered seeds, is one of the most famous of New World hallucinogens, extremely powerful and rapid. The original inhabitants of Haiti made this narcotic stuff, which they took through a bifurcated tube, and in fact it was much used by the aboriginal population over most of the area in religious ceremonies (Hostos). Lewin described the use among one of the Brazilian tribes: ".begin to take Parica snuff ... they assemble in pairs, everyone with a (bamboo) tube containing Parica in his hand, and . everyone blows the contents of his tube with all his strength into the nostrils of his partner. The effects produced in these generally dull and silent people are extraordinary. They become very garrulous and sing, scream and jump about in wild excitement ..."

Cola nitida > KOLA

Colchicum autumnale > MEADOW SAFFRON COLD CURES

GARLIC, boiled, and the juice drunk (Ireland) (Maloney). They have a way of treating a cold in Alabama, either just by eating a spoonful of it, or if the sufferer does not like garlic, take a baked potato, open it, and put the garlic in it; then butter it, or put gravy on it, and eat the potato without chewing it (Browne). Dried TURNIP, grated and mixed with honey is an American cold cure (Stout), and a gypsy remedy is to take a leaf infusion of CUCKOO-PINT to treat their chills and colds (Boase). HORSERADISH can be used, too, by smelling it, or rather inhaling the vapour from the grated root (Vickery. 1995). In a similar way, American Indians would burn twigs of VIRGINIAN JUNIPER and inhale the smoke to clear up a cold (Gilmore).

ELDER flower tea is good for colds, coughs, etc., as well as for sore throats (so is mulled elderberry wine, which is also said to be good for asthma (Hatfield)). A concoction of elderberries was a Highland cold cure (Thornton), but what better than the wine? A Cornish cold cure involved picking elder flowers and angelica leaves, steeping in boiling water for ten minutes and straining, adding sugar to taste (Deane & Shaw). Elder flower is still infused in Cornwall and used as a tisane for hay fever and catarrh. TANSY flower tea was also given for colds (Palmer. 1976) and so was DOG ROSE hips tea (Thomson. 1978), and ROSEMARY tea is recommended, too - it helps clear the head (Rohde). BEE BALM tea is given, as well, particularly if it is a feverish cold, for this medicine has the effect of promoting sweating (Conway). Dried HOLLYHOCK flower tea is good, too (H M Hyatt). WATERCRESS tea is drunk for a cold in Trinidad (Laguerre), and an American remedy is to drink hot, sweetened SAGE tea in bed, after soaking the feet in hot water (Stout). The leaf infusion of WHITE HOREHOUND is probably the best known of cough or cold remedies, and this dates back at least to Anglo-Saxon times (Cockayne). It is still available in the form of lozenges (Cameron). A GROUND IVY infusion was an Irish cure for a cold (Moloney). Actually, "Gill-tea", as it was called (Gill being one of the names for Ground Ivy), mixed with honey or sugar to take away the bitterness, has always been a favourite remedy for coughs and colds (Clair). It is also mixed with wood sage in a tea, and given for colds. This is a New Forest gypsy remedy (Boase). It is said that the Basuto treat colds by stuffing the fresh leaves of HORSE MINT up their nostrils (Ashton).

The flannelly leaves of MULLEIN could be used like flannel, and wrapped round the throat to help relieve coughs and colds (Sanford). Hot mullein tea was also drunk for a cold (R B Browne), and so was YARROW tea, made either from the dried herb, or from the fresh plant (a handful of the whole herb to a pint of boiling water (Jones-Baker. 1974). WOOD SAGE was similarly used in Ireland for colds.(0 Suilleabhain). Some native American groups would grind up the seeds of BLACK MUSTARD to use as a snuff for a cold in the head (H H Smith. 1928). Taking BASIL as a snuff is another example of a cold cure, or an infusion, taken hot at night, is another way of curing a head cold (Quelch). GINGER is a fairly obvious choice for a cold. Parihar & Dutt pointed out that ginger jam was a favourite for coughs and colds. JUJUBE (Zizyphus jubajuba) fruits have been famous since ancient times as a cold cure. They used to be made up into lozenges; such lozenges are still called jujubes (Mitton). AGRIMONY wine used to be made just to take to cure a cold (Grigson. 1955).

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